One of the major findings central to public health is that those with chronic kidney disease are more likely to die from cardiovascular disease than to reach end-stage kidney disease. However, cardiovascular risk factors can be detected and treated. This suggests that those transitioning from chronic to end-stage kidney disease merit more attention. Expenditures during the transition from chronic to end-stage kidney disease are considerable, ranging from $14,500 for Medicare patients to $29,000 for those covered by employer group health plans in the month of dialysis initiation.
"These latest data on kidney disease underscore the importance of the research we fund," said NIDDK Director Griffin P. Rodgers, M.D. "With rising rates of chronic and end-stage kidney disease, we need to stimulate research that will help us discover new, effective therapies for these devastating disorders."
Volume Two reports that the number of people with end-stage kidney disease is increasing in size and cost. The incidence of chronic kidney disease in 2006 was more than 100,000, or 360 per one million people, an increase of 3.4 percent over the 2005 incidence rate. There were more than half a million patients with end-stage kidney disease in 2006. Of these, 70 percent were on dialysis. An important step before a patient begins dialysis is the preparation of a vascular access, which is the site on the patient's body where blood is removed and returned during dialysis.
The three types of vascular access for dialysis are arteriovenous (AV) fistula, an AV graft, and a venous catheter. Both the fistula and the graft involve connecting an artery to a vein, usually beneath the skin in a patient's arm. The fistula is considered the best long-term vascular access for dialysis. The catheter is a tube inserted into a vein in the patient's neck, chest, or l
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NIH/National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases