Navigation Links
ADHD is over-diagnosed
Date:3/30/2012

What experts and the public have already long suspected is now supported by representative data collected by researchers at Ruhr-Universitt Bochum (RUB) and University of Basel: ADHD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is over-diagnosed. The study showed that child and adolescent psychotherapists and psychiatrists tend to give a diagnosis based on heuristics, unclear rules of thumb, rather than adhering to recognized diagnostic criteria. Boys in particular are substantially more often misdiagnosed compared to girls. These are the most important results of a study conducted by Prof. Dr. Silvia Schneider and Prof. Dr. Jrgen Margraf (both from RUB) and Dr. Katrin Bruchmller (University of Basel) as reported in the American periodical "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology".

Leon has ADHD, Lea doesn't

The researchers surveyed altogether 1,000 child and adolescent psychotherapists and psychiatrists across Germany. 473 participated in the study. They received one of four available case vignettes, and were asked to give a diagnoses and a recommendation for therapy. In three out of the four case vignettes, the described symptoms and circumstances did not fulfil ADHD criteria. Only one of the cases fulfilled ADHD criteria based strictly on the valid diagnostic criteria. In addition, the gender of the child was included as a variable resulting in eight different case vignettes. As the result, when comparing two identical cases with a different gender, the difference was clear: Leon has ADHD, Lea doesn't.

Male and conspicuous: the "prototype" makes the difference

Many child and adolescent psychotherapists and psychiatrists seem to proceed heuristically and base their decisions on prototypical symptoms. The prototype is male and shows symptoms such as motoric restlessness, lack of concentration and impulsiveness. In connection with the gender of the patient, these symptoms lead to different diagnoses. A boy with such symptoms, even he does not fulfil the complete set of diagnostic criteria, will receive a diagnosis for ADHD, whereas a girl will not. Also the therapist's gender plays a role in the diagnostic: male therapists give substantially more frequently a diagnosis for ADHD than their female counterparts.

Diagnostic inflation, more medication, higher daily doses

In the past decades the diagnoses ADHD have become almost inflationary. Between 1989 and 2001, the number of diagnoses in German clinical practise increased by 381 percent. The costs for ADHD medication, such as for the performance-enhancer Methylphenidate, have grown 9 times between 1993 and 2003. The German health insurance company, Techniker, reports an increase of 30 percent in Methylphenidate prescriptions for its clients between the ages of 6 and 18. Similarly, the daily dosage has increased by 10 percent on average.

Remarkable lack of research

Considering these statistics, there is a remarkable lack of research in the diagnostic of ADHD. "In spite of the strong public interest, only very few empirical studies have addressed this issue", Prof. Schneider and Dr. Bruchmller point out. While in the 70s and 80s a "certain upswing" of studies on the frequency and reasons for misdiagnoses could be observed, current research hardly examines the phenomena. The current study shows that in order to avoid a misdiagnosis of ADHD and premature treatment, it is crucial for therapists not to rely on their intuition, instead to strictly adhere to defined, established diagnostic criteria. This is best possible with the help of standardized diagnostic instruments, such as diagnostic interviews.


'/>"/>
Contact: Prof. Dr. Silvia Schneider
silvia.schneider@rub.de
49-234-322-3168
Ruhr-University Bochum
Source:Eurekalert

Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:5/26/2017)... VA (PRWEB) , ... May 26, 2017 , ... ... pleased to announce a new educational seminar to focus on current legislative activity ... News(LEARN) seminar will begin at 1 p.m. Sunday, Sept. 10, and will continue ...
(Date:5/26/2017)... Nevada (PRWEB) , ... May 26, 2017 , ... ... produce the first ever copper, antimicrobial, mesh back 24/7 task chair specifically designed ... conference applications. “We are thrilled to partner with Cupron® to provide customers ...
(Date:5/26/2017)... ... May 26, 2017 , ... Rob Lowe acts as host and helps ... series is on hiking in American. Viewers can reconnect with America as it explores ... hiking. , Many consumers have looked for an inventive new place for a family ...
(Date:5/26/2017)... ... ... of Eden”: retells the stories of three Bible figures in modern terms. “Just What ... trader, horse farmer, artist and a former GM journeyman. Born in 1953 in Portland, ... to Dayton, Ohio, where Penny graduated high school. At sixteen, she toured France to ...
(Date:5/24/2017)... New York, New York (PRWEB) , ... May 24, 2017 , ... ... and general vascular surgery in New York City. He is known for ... his broad specialization in vascular surgery, Dr. Benvenisty holds sub-specialty training in treating renovascular ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:5/4/2017)... SAN DIEGO , May 4, 2017 ... 2017 Annual Clinical and Scientific Meeting— OBP Medical , ... devices, today announced the launch of a new extra-small ... and ER-SPEC vaginal specula. Already available ... and extra-large sizes makes OBP Medical,s line of single-use ...
(Date:5/4/2017)...  A new tight-tolerance microextrusion medical tubing product ... is being launched by Natvar, a Tekni-Plex company. ... recent years to service a wide variety of ... expensive materials such as glass and fluoropolymers have ... their ability to consistently hold tolerances. This is ...
(Date:5/3/2017)... , May 3, 2017 A Catheterization ... hospital or healthcare facility. Commonly referred to as ... equipped with diagnostic imaging technology to give physicians ... heart. In these spaces, a team of physicians ... angioplasty, percutaneous coronary intervention, congenital heart defect closure, ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: