Navigation Links
A CNIO study recreates the history of life through the genome
Date:11/19/2013

One of the most important processes in the life of cells is genome replication, which consists of making exact copies of the DNA in order to pass it on to their offspring when they split. In most organisms, from yeast to human beings, genome replication follows a set plan, in which certain regions of the genome replicate before others; alterations in the late replication phases had previously been related to cancer and ageing. Now, a team from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), led by Alfonso Valencia, has for the first time related this process to evolution over millions of years of life on Earth.

The study, developed alongside Toms Marqus-Bonet from the Institute of Evolutionary Biology (CSIC-UPF) in Barcelona, represents a new evolutionary approach in which the genome becomes the lead player, and opens up new possibilities for the study of the evolution of living beings and their diversity. The results of the study are available in the open-access (free) journal Biology Open.

Valencia explains: "We have discovered that replication is like a mirror that reflects the evolutionary history of living beings: the first genes to be replicated are the oldest, whilst those that replicate later on are the youngest".

According to this model, each new gene tends to replicate after the already existing ones, causing the accumulation of successive layers of new genes. David de Juan and Daniel Rico, researchers in Valencia's group who have worked on the study, compare it to: "the growth of a tree trunk, in which the exterior concentric rings represent the most recent years in the life of the tree". But what biological advantages might this model offer?

The later genetic material is copied, the greater the probability of the DNA being damaged and of mutations accumulating. This way the older genes, which are vital for life, are located in protected regions −those that accumulate less mutations− which replicate early; while the newer genes replicate in more unstable regions of the genome − those that accumulate more mutations− which replicate later on. "This allows the most recent genes to evolve much more quickly than the older ones", says Rico.

"The regions that replicate late also have a compact and inaccessible structure; they are hidden zones in the genome that act as evolutionary laboratories, where these genes can acquire new functions without affecting essential processes in the organism", adds de Juan.

The authors of the study maintain that this model could have facilitated the birth of new genes related to specific functions in tissues and organs and could have contributed to the development of complex structures such as the brain or liver.

CANCER AND THE EVOLUTION OF LIVING BEINGS: THE SAME ORIGIN

The appearance of mutations in late replicating regions had already been related to cancer and ageing in previous studies. scar Fernndez-Capetillo, the head of CNIO's Genomic Instability Group, and one of the study's researchers, says the results are 'surprising', given that: "they help to understand how drastic changes in the genomethat until now had only been related to the formation of tumoursare, at the same time, crucial for the evolution of the species".

The authors point out that "the fascinating thing about this model is how the late-replicating regions have contributed to the adaptive capacity of species as complex as the human being".

The evolutionary vision of nature has reached new dimensions with the latest advances in molecular biology, and has reached its high point in the last 10 years thanks to the massive genome sequencing techniques. Valencia says the new advances in this direction will help improve our understanding of all living systems.


'/>"/>

Contact: Nuria Noriega
comunicacion@cnio.es
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas (CNIO)
Source:Eurekalert  

Related medicine news :

1. Study Suggests Vaccine May Help Kids With Brain Cancer
2. Study reveals how cancer drug causes diabetic-like state
3. Coffee Drinking in Pregnancy Wont Lead to Sleepless Baby: Study
4. Lower GI problems plague many with rheumatoid arthritis, Mayo Clinic study finds
5. Veggies Like Broccoli, Cabbage May Help Fight Breast Cancer: Study
6. No Added Cancer Risk From Hip Replacement Materials: Study
7. Reported Decline in U.S. Pneumonia Deaths May Be False: Study
8. Early Study Finds Some Promise for Lung Cancer Vaccine
9. Narcissists Often Ace Job Interviews, Study Finds
10. Sexual objectification of female artists in music videos exists regardless of race, MU study finds
11. Soy may alleviate hot flashes in menopause, large-scale study finds
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
A CNIO study recreates the history of life through the genome
(Date:5/26/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... May 26, 2016 , ... ... Retinal Degeneration” for the Foundation Fighting Blindness, Long Island Chapter on June 4, ... the public. , Dr. Maisel, founder of Retina Group of New York ...
(Date:5/26/2016)... ... 2016 , ... Leadership of Life Science Logistics (LSL), a ... earned its ISO 13485 certification, indicating the company’s quality control system for medical ... associated with ISO quality standard 13485. , BSI Group America, Inc., a ...
(Date:5/26/2016)... ... May 26, 2016 , ... Nike Yoga ... activities from daily practices, arts & crafts, discussions, and games all geared towards ... Christy Evans have combined backgrounds in kids’ yoga, collegiate sport yoga instruction, and ...
(Date:5/26/2016)... , ... May 26, 2016 , ... ... and products recently hosted the first PowerWave Instructor Certification Course in Stoughton, Massachusetts. ... a group of fitness professional through the 8 hour interactive course to qualify ...
(Date:5/26/2016)... ... 2016 , ... A health conscious snack that doesn't sacrifice taste? It's possible! ... an undeniable buzz in the protein product community by offering an alternative to the ... are packed with 11 grams of protein and made from a healthy blend of ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:5/25/2016)... 2016 As illustrated by the ... month, the numbers and momentum of cannabis in the ... the billions, more research and development push the sector ... of Legal Marijuana Markets Report  from from ArcView Market ... of the increase in sector is attributed to adult ...
(Date:5/25/2016)... PUNE, India , May 25, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... Pipeline Review, H1 2016"market research report that provides ... complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics ... route of administration (RoA) and molecule type, along ... releases. It also reviews key players involved in ...
(Date:5/24/2016)... Nev. , May 24, 2016  Diana Russell ... "eats" her organs from the inside out.  This disease ... completely dependent on her children and grandchildren to leave ... her wheelchair, Diana,s family cannot haul the wheelchair.  So ... in the car, and Diana is left to wait ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: