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A Feinstein Institute for Medical Research Study Shows Early Cognitive Problems among Those Who Eventually Get Alzheimer's
Date:12/30/2012

uld only confuse things and make it harder to interpret the results. They decided to use size to test a person’s ability to use semantic information to make judgments between two competing sets of facts. “If you ask someone what is bigger, a key or an ant, they would be slower in their response than if you asked them what is bigger, a key or a house,” explained Dr. Goldberg. The greater the difference in size between two objects, the faster a person -- normal or otherwise -- can recognize the difference and react to the question.

Investigators brought in 25 patients with MCI, 27 patients with Alzheimer's and 70 cognitively fit people for testing. They found large differences between the healthy controls and the MCI and Alzheimer's patients. “This finding suggested that semantic processing was corrupted,” said Dr. Goldberg. “MCI and AD (Alzheimer's disease) patients are really affected when they are asked to respond to a task with small size differences."

They then tweaked the task by showing pictures of a small ant and a big house or a big ant and a small house. This time, the MCI and AD patients did not have a problem with the first part of the test -- they were able to choose the house over the ant when asked what was bigger. But if the images were incongruent – the big ant seemed just as big as the small house – they were confused, they answered incorrectly or took longer to arrive at a response.

Patients with MCI were functioning somewhere between the healthy people and those with AD. “When the decision was harder, their reaction time was slower,” he said.

Would this damaged semantic system have an effect on everyday functions? To answer this question, investigators turned to the UCSD Skills Performance Assessment scale, a tool that they have been using in MCI and AD patients that is generally used to identify functional deficits in patients with schizophrenia. The test taps a person’s ability to write a complex
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