Navigation Links
2 gene mutations linked to most common brain cancers -- and longer survival
Date:2/18/2009

Scientists at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and Duke University Medical Center have linked mutations in two genes, IDH1 and IDH2, to nearly three-quarters of several of the most common types of brain cancers known as gliomas. Among the findings: people with certain tumors that carry these genetic alterations appear to survive at least twice as long as those without them.

Further research on the genes could also lead to more precise diagnosis and treatments, they said.

Reporting in the Feb. 19 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, scientists say they looked for IDH1 and IDH2 gene alterations in material taken from 500 brain tumors and 500 non-central nervous system cancers. They located changes in the IDH1 gene in more than 70 percent of three common types of gliomas: low-grade astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and secondary glioblastomas. The changes occurred within a single spot along a string of thousands of genetic coding letters. Some of the brain cancers that did not have alterations in IDH1 had equivalent mutations in another closely related gene, IDH2.

"For patients with these types of common brain tumors, mutations of IDH1/IDH2 are the most frequent genetic alterations yet identified," says D. Williams Parsons, M.D., Ph.D., visiting professor in pediatric oncology at Johns Hopkins and assistant professor at Baylor College of Medicine.

Further analysis of their data showed that glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma patients carrying the mutations survived longer than those who did not, and note that additional studies of how the gene works may reveal why this occurs. The median survival for glioblastoma patients with mutations in either IDH1 or IDH2 was 31 months versus 15 months for those lacking the mutations. Anaplastic astrocytoma patients carrying the mutations were found to have a median survival of 65 months as compared with 20 months for those who did not. The scientists say that they could not compare survival data in oligodendroglioma patients because there were too few tumors that did not carry the mutations.

"Gliomas with IDH1/IDH2 mutations clearly make up a clinically and biologically distinct subgroup of brain cancers that may benefit from targeted therapies in the future," says Parsons.

IDH1, which stands for isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, was first spotted last year in results from a genomewide scan of brain cancer mutations led by the Johns Hopkins scientists. At the time, the scientists linked mutations in the IDH1 gene to roughly 12 percent of glioblastomas (or glioblastoma multiforme), the most lethal form of glioma.

Add to this the newly discovered mutations occurring in lower grade astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, and Parsons estimates that 6,000 adults and children with brain cancer per year in the U.S. could be affected.

"Pathologists may find it useful to determine IDH1/IDH2 status to help identify and classify these cancers," says Parsons. He added that proper diagnosis is essential because treatments differ within types of gliomas, as well as other forms of brain cancer.

"New treatments could be designed to target the enzymatic activity that is altered by these mutations," says Victor Velculescu, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor and director of cancer genetics at the Ludwig Center at Johns Hopkins.

"The mutations appear to occur very early in the progression of these cancers, perhaps at the stem cell level," adds Bert Vogelstein, M.D., Clayton Professor and co-director of the Ludwig Center at Johns Hopkins and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator.

Mutations were found by a standard technique of amplifying sections of the IDH1 and IDH2 genes through polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a process that replicates bits of DNA to levels that can be detected by sensitive computer equipment.


'/>"/>

Contact: Vanessa Wasta
wastava@jhmi.edu
410-955-1287
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
Source:Eurekalert

Related medicine news :

1. Gene Mutations May Cause Rare Neonatal Diabetes
2. Ashkenazi ovarian cancer patients with BRCA mutations live longer than those with normal gene
3. BRCA Mutations Dont Raise Breast Cancer Risk Equally
4. Genetic Mutations Boost Prostate Cancer Risk
5. Scientists explore factors contributing to DNA mutations
6. Benefit of cancer prevention surgery differs between women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations
7. 2 Mutations Were Critical to Spread of 1918 Flu
8. Einstein researchers discover gene mutations linked to longer lifespans
9. Gene Mutations for Rare Heart Disease Also Found in Kids
10. Different mutations in single gene suggest Parkinsons is primarily an inherited genetic disorder
11. Second breast cancer may be greater than thought for high-risk women without BRCA mutations
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/26/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... June 26, 2016 , ... Pixel Film ... Pro X. , "Film editors can give their videos a whole new perspective by ... Austin - CEO of Pixel Film Studios. , ProSlice Levels contains over 30 ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... , ... June 25, 2016 , ... ... policy issues and applications at AcademyHealth’s Annual Research Meeting June 26-28, 2016, at ... on several important health care topics including advance care planning, healthcare costs and ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... ... First Choice Emergency Room , the largest network of independent freestanding ... of its new Mesquite-Samuell Farm facility. , “We are pleased to announce Dr. ... James M. Muzzarelli, Executive Medical Director of First Choice Emergency Room. , Dr. ...
(Date:6/25/2016)... ... June 25, 2016 , ... Conventional wisdom preaches the benefits of moderation, whether ... latter, setting the bar too high can result in disappointment, perhaps even self-loathing. However, ... their goal. , Research from PsychTests.com reveals that behind the tendency ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... (PRWEB) , ... June 24, 2016 , ... Marcy was in a crisis. Her son ... lash out at his family verbally and physically. , “When something upset him, he couldn’t ... would use it. He would throw rocks at my other children and say he was ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... , June 23, 2016  MedSource announced today ... its e-clinical software solution of choice.  This latest ... possible value to their clients by offering a ... preferred relationship establishes nowEDC as the EDC platform ... MedSource,s full-service clients.  "nowEDC has long been a ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... , June 23, 2016 Roche (SIX: RO, ... clearance for its Elecsys BRAHMS PCT (procalcitonin) assay as ... or septic shock. With this clearance, Roche is the ... fully integrated solution for sepsis risk assessment and management. ... bacterial infection and PCT levels in blood can aid ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... Calif. , June 23, 2016 ... CST on Thursday, July 7, 2016 , , , , ... ) , , , , EXPERT PANELISTS:  , , ... Naik; Senior Industry Analyst, Christi Bird; Senior Industry Analyst, Divyaa Ravishankar ... The global pharmaceutical industry is witnessing an exceptional ...
Breaking Medicine Technology: