Navigation Links
Surrogate markers


A surrogate marker (or surrogate end point) is term used in medical research for a change to the human body that is believe to be necessary to an eventual outcome or end point.[1]

Surrogate markers are used when it is unethical to look for the end point (e.g., death) in the experiment, or when the number of end point events is very small, thus making it impractical to conduct an experiment to look for the end point. The measurement of surrogate markers provides a way to test the effectiveness of a treatment for a fatal disease without having to wait for a statistically significant number of deaths to occur. the FDA will often accept evidence from clinical trials that show a benefit to surrogate markers instead of to end points.

A commonly used example is cholesterol. A clinical trial may show that a particular drug is effective in reducing cholesterol. A high cholesterol is associated with death from heart disease, so it is believed that a treatment that is effective in reducing cholesterol must also be effective in reducing death from heart disease. "Death from heart disease" is the endpoint of interest, but "cholesterol" is the surrogate marker.

Examples of other surrogate markers include:

  • fragmented blood cells are a surrogate marker for organ failure or stroke in

TTP;

  • the S-phase duration, may be used as a surrogate marker for breast cancer occurrence;
  • CD4 count is a surrogate marker for death from HIV infection.

Criticism

There have been a number of instances when studies using surrogate markers have been used to show benefit from a particular treatment, but later, a repeat study looking at endpoints has not shown a benefit, or even a harm.[2]

References

  1. ^ Cohn JN (2004). "Introduction to Surrogate Markers". Circulation 109: IV20–1. PMID 15226247. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  2. ^ Psaty BM, Weiss NS, Furberg CD, et al. (1999). "Surrogate end points, health outcomes, and the drug approval process for the treatment of risk factors for cardiovascular disease". JAMA 282: 786–790.

'"/>


(Date:8/7/2018)... ... 2018 , ... Today Springfield Creamery added six new Organic ... yogurts are made with milk from grass-fed cows who enjoy a diet of ... Nancy’s sources the milk from organic family-owned farms, all within 60 miles of ...
(Date:8/3/2018)... ... 03, 2018 , ... Firstaid4sport have been successfully selling Mueller ... Firstaid4sport business in the 1990's and his son in law, Michael Davison has ... in the UK of sports medicine products, supplying professional and amateur sports teams ...
(Date:8/3/2018)... Texas (PRWEB) , ... August 03, 2018 , ... Yisrayl ... this week that reveals secret passages and meanings from the Bible meant only to ... studying Bible Prophecy and he has been able to decode passages that he says ...
(Date:8/2/2018)... , ... August 02, 2018 , ... Dr. Srini ... and brain biology of why some people could care less, demonstrating a “whatever” attitude ... there are many reasons for this, one often overlooked reason relates to being overworked. ...
(Date:8/2/2018)... JOSE, Calif. (PRWEB) , ... August 02, 2018 ... ... will be featuring its premium Resona 7 Ultrasound system with unique new upgrades ... in San Antonio, Texas. Based on ZONE Sonography® Technology (ZST), the upgrades include ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
Other medicine definition