Navigation Links
Surrogate markers


A surrogate marker (or surrogate end point) is term used in medical research for a change to the human body that is believe to be necessary to an eventual outcome or end point.[1]

Surrogate markers are used when it is unethical to look for the end point (e.g., death) in the experiment, or when the number of end point events is very small, thus making it impractical to conduct an experiment to look for the end point. The measurement of surrogate markers provides a way to test the effectiveness of a treatment for a fatal disease without having to wait for a statistically significant number of deaths to occur. the FDA will often accept evidence from clinical trials that show a benefit to surrogate markers instead of to end points.

A commonly used example is cholesterol. A clinical trial may show that a particular drug is effective in reducing cholesterol. A high cholesterol is associated with death from heart disease, so it is believed that a treatment that is effective in reducing cholesterol must also be effective in reducing death from heart disease. "Death from heart disease" is the endpoint of interest, but "cholesterol" is the surrogate marker.

Examples of other surrogate markers include:

  • fragmented blood cells are a surrogate marker for organ failure or stroke in

TTP;

  • the S-phase duration, may be used as a surrogate marker for breast cancer occurrence;
  • CD4 count is a surrogate marker for death from HIV infection.

Criticism

There have been a number of instances when studies using surrogate markers have been used to show benefit from a particular treatment, but later, a repeat study looking at endpoints has not shown a benefit, or even a harm.[2]

References

  1. ^ Cohn JN (2004). "Introduction to Surrogate Markers". Circulation 109: IV20–1. PMID 15226247. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  2. ^ Psaty BM, Weiss NS, Furberg CD, et al. (1999). "Surrogate end points, health outcomes, and the drug approval process for the treatment of risk factors for cardiovascular disease". JAMA 282: 786–790.

'"/>


(Date:2/11/2016)... MA (PRWEB) , ... February 11, 2016 , ... The ... overpaying for IT services, what questions to ask your IT consultant before signing a ... access to your computer network. , “With companies relying heavily on e-mail and technology, ...
(Date:2/10/2016)... ... February 10, 2016 , ... President Obama’s ... Advantage organizations to deliver medical services via telehealth, estimated to generate more than ... for such language for many years. Although there is more to be ...
(Date:2/10/2016)... ... February 10, 2016 , ... Early this week, Team ... raise awareness of Nestlé KITKAT as the first global confectionery brand sourced from 100% ... farmers and the quality of their product, through activities that focus on better farming, ...
(Date:2/10/2016)... ... February 10, 2016 , ... Western ... dental health services to the developmentally disabled in the Coachella Valley. , The ... a new facility at 71-949 Highway 111, Suite 100-B, in Rancho Mirage, California. ...
(Date:2/10/2016)... , ... February 10, 2016 , ... ... Video Remote Interpreting (VRI) within Healthcare, recently partnered with Heart City Health ... (VRI). , For nearly 23 years, Heart City Health Center has provided the ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
Other medicine definition