Navigation Links
Surrogate markers


A surrogate marker (or surrogate end point) is term used in medical research for a change to the human body that is believe to be necessary to an eventual outcome or end point.[1]

Surrogate markers are used when it is unethical to look for the end point (e.g., death) in the experiment, or when the number of end point events is very small, thus making it impractical to conduct an experiment to look for the end point. The measurement of surrogate markers provides a way to test the effectiveness of a treatment for a fatal disease without having to wait for a statistically significant number of deaths to occur. the FDA will often accept evidence from clinical trials that show a benefit to surrogate markers instead of to end points.

A commonly used example is cholesterol. A clinical trial may show that a particular drug is effective in reducing cholesterol. A high cholesterol is associated with death from heart disease, so it is believed that a treatment that is effective in reducing cholesterol must also be effective in reducing death from heart disease. "Death from heart disease" is the endpoint of interest, but "cholesterol" is the surrogate marker.

Examples of other surrogate markers include:

  • fragmented blood cells are a surrogate marker for organ failure or stroke in

TTP;

  • the S-phase duration, may be used as a surrogate marker for breast cancer occurrence;
  • CD4 count is a surrogate marker for death from HIV infection.

Criticism

There have been a number of instances when studies using surrogate markers have been used to show benefit from a particular treatment, but later, a repeat study looking at endpoints has not shown a benefit, or even a harm.[2]

References

  1. ^ Cohn JN (2004). "Introduction to Surrogate Markers". Circulation 109: IV20–1. PMID 15226247. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  2. ^ Psaty BM, Weiss NS, Furberg CD, et al. (1999). "Surrogate end points, health outcomes, and the drug approval process for the treatment of risk factors for cardiovascular disease". JAMA 282: 786–790.

'"/>


(Date:7/25/2014)... and desires in initial romantic encounters determine the fate ... those initial "sparks" necessary to fuel sexual desire and ... a desirable trait for both men and women on ... the other person? Do men perceive responsive women as ... women,s perceptions of men? A study published in ...
(Date:7/25/2014)... San Mateo, CA (PRWEB) July 25, 2014 ... in an upcoming episode of Innovations with Ed Begley ... Dates and show times TBA. , For more than ... and the Bay Area community through its residential alcohol ... Innovations will educate on Project Ninety's humble idea and ...
(Date:7/25/2014)... July 25, 2014 Home Care Assistance ... provider of non-medical, in-home senior care, is weighing in ... be supporting senior-led projects in Alberta through their New ... for Seniors Program is a federal grants and contributions ... who make a difference in the lives of others ...
(Date:7/25/2014)... Ca (PRWEB) July 25, 2014 The ... with their Anniversary Futon Sale. The Futon Shop has been ... pop shop, which has grown from a few handmade futon ... 33 different kinds of futon mattresses. , The Futon ... the beginning and the desire to sleep on natural fibers ...
(Date:7/25/2014)... ZeptoMetrix™ Corporation (ZMC), an industry leader ... and services for infectious disease diagnostic development, is ... Multimarker Controls - MDZ001 . , An ... marked, unassayed external run control intended for use ... Multimarker Controls - MDZ001 has been specifically designed ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):Health News:Why do men prefer nice women? 2Health News:Why do men prefer nice women? 3Health News:Project Ninety to be Featured on Innovations with Ed Begley, Jr. 2Health News:Project Ninety to be Featured on Innovations with Ed Begley, Jr. 3Health News:Home Care Assistance – Halton/Peel Region Weighs in on Alberta Communities Receiving Funding to Support Seniors and Senior Caregivers 2Health News:Home Care Assistance – Halton/Peel Region Weighs in on Alberta Communities Receiving Funding to Support Seniors and Senior Caregivers 3Health News:Organic Mattress Manufacturer Celebrates 38 Years Of Being In Business 2Health News:Organic Mattress Manufacturer Celebrates 38 Years Of Being In Business 3Health News:ZeptoMetrix™ Corporation (ZMC) Releases FDA Class 1 Exempt, IVD and CE Labeled NATtrol™ RP Multimarker Controls 2
... protecting children from flu if they included both strains of ... has found. "Adding a second influenza B virus strain ... guesswork out of strain selection and help improve the vaccine,s ... and director of the Center for Vaccine Development at Saint ...
... ... Wigix Inc.’s subsidiary, ddku.com, affording it an end to end marketing platform in China. ... Oakland, CA ... has acquired a Shanghai-based business process outsourcing company, Mag2U, to enhance DDKU’s growing internet ...
... testing, experts say , TUESDAY, April 6 (HealthDay News) -- ... have a genetic mutation that boosts their risk for the ... breast than are women who don,t have the genetic mutations, ... these women, who carry a mutation in the BRCA1 and ...
... Today, the Interactive Autism Network (IAN), www.ianproject.org, the ... of the Grandparents of Children with Autism Spectrum ... who participated were the first to raise concerns ... 2007, the IAN Project has helped to accelerate ...
... Indianapolis, 6 April, 2010 The global nursing shortage is ... schools and to a phenomenon known as nurse migration, where ... response, the International Council of Nurses (ICN) and the Honor ... The Elsevier Foundation, will conduct the Global Summit on Nurse ...
... April 2010 - Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of ... adolescents. Children with ADHD are excessively restless, impulsive, and ... Problems inhibiting behavior are a common theme for ADHD ... medications, behavioral approaches or a combination of the two. ...
Cached Medicine News:Health News:Building a better flu vaccine: Add second strain of influenza B 2Health News:Wigix Acquires Mag2U, A Leading Business Process Outsourcing Company 2Health News:Wigix Acquires Mag2U, A Leading Business Process Outsourcing Company 3Health News:Gene Mutations Up Risk for Cancer in Opposite Breast 2Health News:Gene Mutations Up Risk for Cancer in Opposite Breast 3Health News:New survey finds grandparents play key role in lives of children with autism 2Health News:New survey finds grandparents play key role in lives of children with autism 3Health News:International summit seeks solutions to global shortage of nursing faculty 2Health News:Synergy between behavioral and pharmacologic interventions for ADHD 2
Other medicine definitionOther Tags