Navigation Links
Surrogate markers


A surrogate marker (or surrogate end point) is term used in medical research for a change to the human body that is believe to be necessary to an eventual outcome or end point.[1]

Surrogate markers are used when it is unethical to look for the end point (e.g., death) in the experiment, or when the number of end point events is very small, thus making it impractical to conduct an experiment to look for the end point. The measurement of surrogate markers provides a way to test the effectiveness of a treatment for a fatal disease without having to wait for a statistically significant number of deaths to occur. the FDA will often accept evidence from clinical trials that show a benefit to surrogate markers instead of to end points.

A commonly used example is cholesterol. A clinical trial may show that a particular drug is effective in reducing cholesterol. A high cholesterol is associated with death from heart disease, so it is believed that a treatment that is effective in reducing cholesterol must also be effective in reducing death from heart disease. "Death from heart disease" is the endpoint of interest, but "cholesterol" is the surrogate marker.

Examples of other surrogate markers include:

  • fragmented blood cells are a surrogate marker for organ failure or stroke in

TTP;

  • the S-phase duration, may be used as a surrogate marker for breast cancer occurrence;
  • CD4 count is a surrogate marker for death from HIV infection.

Criticism

There have been a number of instances when studies using surrogate markers have been used to show benefit from a particular treatment, but later, a repeat study looking at endpoints has not shown a benefit, or even a harm.[2]

References

  1. ^ Cohn JN (2004). "Introduction to Surrogate Markers". Circulation 109: IV20–1. PMID 15226247. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  2. ^ Psaty BM, Weiss NS, Furberg CD, et al. (1999). "Surrogate end points, health outcomes, and the drug approval process for the treatment of risk factors for cardiovascular disease". JAMA 282: 786–790.

'"/>


(Date:4/18/2014)... new medical-testing device is being prepped to enter ... improve diagnosis of certain diseases in remote areas, ... series of investigations aboard the International Space Station ... the space-tested concept of capillary flow to diagnose ... David Kelso, Ph.D., a researcher at Northwestern University ...
(Date:4/18/2014)... Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine researchers have been ... for diabetes, Novo Nordisk announced this month. Of the ... and Obesity Biologics Science Forum Program, only four projects ... Hopkins researchers. They are Jonathan Powell, M.D., Ph.D.; G. ... , Jonathan Powell, a professor of oncology, will use ...
(Date:4/18/2014)... Fraser University psychologists have made a brain-related discovery ... attention-deficit disorders. , This discovery opens up the ... or suppress a specific brain activity that the ... , The Journal of Neuroscience has ... John McDonald, an associate professor of psychology and ...
(Date:4/18/2014)... Northwestern Medicine scientists could lead to potential new treatments ... with scleroderma. , Fibrosis, or scarring, is a ... skin and lungs can lead to serious organ damage ... new therapeutic options centers on findings made by Swati ... the role that a specific protein plays in promoting ...
(Date:4/17/2014)... first genetic variant specifically associated with the risk ... 10-15 per cent of all breast cancer cases. ... cancer sub-type, called invasive lobular carcinoma, gives researchers ... particular kind of breast cancer, which can be ... (Thursday) in the journal PloS Genetics , ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):Health News:Space-tested fluid flow concept advances infectious disease diagnoses 2Health News:Space-tested fluid flow concept advances infectious disease diagnoses 3Health News:Scientists discover brain's anti-distraction system 2Health News:New clues on tissue scarring in scleroderma 2Health News:First genetic link discovered to difficult-to-diagnose breast cancer sub-type 2Health News:First genetic link discovered to difficult-to-diagnose breast cancer sub-type 3
... Weight loss improves the sexual health of obese men with ... placed 31 obese men with type 2 diabetes on either ... diet meant to decrease calorie intake by 600 calories a ... to an easing of erectile dysfunction and improved sexual desire ...
... People living in a region of the southeastern United States ... higher rates of stroke deaths than the rest of the ... risk for sepsis, a severe illness in which bacteria overwhelms ... sepsis across the United States," said Dr. Henry Wang, associate ...
... University of Massachusetts Medical School have uncovered a novel ... immune response for malaria. Activation of this pathway appears ... by the immune system that may contribute to inflammation ... part in susceptibility for the most common and lethal ...
... , THURSDAY, Aug. 4 (HealthDay News) -- A ... comfortable using the clot-busting drug tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) to ... finds. An ischemic stroke is caused by blocked blood ... of neurology residents who say they,re comfortable using tPA rose ...
... have completed a comprehensive map of genetic mutations occurring ... The findings, reported in the Aug. 4 issue ... biological cause of the tumors, they say. To ... seven oligodendroglioma tissue samples, and focused attention on recurring ...
... the United States spend nearly four times as much dealing ... Most of the difference stems from the fact that Canadian ... multiple payers in the United States. These findings are ... -- the result of a research collaboration among Weill Cornell ...
Cached Medicine News:Health News:U.S. 'Stroke Belt' May Also Be 'Sepsis Belt' 2Health News:Targeting innate immunity in malaria 2Health News:Targeting innate immunity in malaria 3Health News:More Neurology Residents Using Clot-Busting Drug for Stroke 2Health News:Johns Hopkins scientists map genes for common form of brain cancer 2Health News:Johns Hopkins scientists map genes for common form of brain cancer 3Health News:US physician practices spend 4 times Canadian practices 2Health News:US physician practices spend 4 times Canadian practices 3
Other medicine definitionOther Tags