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Ocular oncology

Eye cancer
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 C69.
ICD-9 190

Ocular oncology is the branch of medicine dealing with tumors relating to the eye and its adnexa. Eye cancer can affect all parts of the eye.


Eye cancer

Origin and location

Eye cancers can be primary (starts within the eye) and metastatic cancer (spread to the eye from another organ). The two most common cancers that spread to the eye from another organ are breast cancer and lung cancer. Other less common sites of origin include the prostate, kidney, thyroid, skin, colon lymphoma and leukemia.


Tumors in the eye and orbit can be benign like dermoid cysts, or malignant like rhabdomyosarcoma and retinoblastoma. The most common eyelid tumor is called basal cell carcinoma. This tumor can grow around the eye but rarely spreads to other parts of the body. Other types of common eyelid cancers include squamous carcinoma, sebaceous carcinoma and malignant melanoma.

The most common malignant primary intraocular tumor in adults is melanoma. Though most attention is given to posterior choroidal melanoma, these tumors can also occur in the iris and ciliary body. Then they are called iris or ciliary body melanoma.

The most common malignant intraocular tumor in children is called retinoblastoma. Affecting approximately 325 children per year in North America, early detection has allowed for cures exceeding 95%.[citation needed]

The most common orbital malignancy is orbital lymphoma. This tumor can be diagnosed by biopsy with histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis. Most patients with orbital lymphoma can be offered chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Orbital dermoid cysts are benign choristomas which are typically found at the junction of sutures, most commonly at the fronto-zygomatic suture. Large deep orbital dermoid cysts can have cause pressure effects on the muscles and optic nerve, leading to diplopia and loss of vision.

Types of Eye cancer (Tumor) in detail

Choroidal Tumors[1] by Paul T Finger, MD. 1.Choroidal Hemangioma [2] 2.Choroidal Melanoma [3] 3.Choroidal Metastasis [4] 4.Choroidal Nevus [5] 5.Choroidal Osteoma [6] 6.Ciliary Body Melanoma [7] 7.The Nevus of Ota [8]

Conjunctival Tumors 1.Conjunctival Kaposi's Sarcoma [9] 2.Epibulbar Dermoid [10] 3.General Information: Malignant Conjunctival Tumors [11] 4.Lymphoma of the Conjunctiva [12] 5.Melanoma and PAM with Atypia [13] 6.Pigmented Conjunctival Tumors [14] 7.Pingueculum [15] 8.Pterygium [16] 9.Squamous Carcinoma and Intraepithelial Neoplasia of the Conjunctiva [17]

Ocular oncology

Ocular oncology takes into consideration that the primary requirement for patients is preservation of life by removal of the tumor, along with best efforts directed at preservation of useful vision, followed by cosmetic appearance. The treatment of ocular tumors is generally a multi-specialty effort, requiring coordination between the ophthalmologist, medical oncologist, radiation specialist, head & neck surgeon / ENT surgeon, pediatrician/internal medicine/hospitalist and a multidisciplinary team of support staff and nurses.

See also

External links

Specific types


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