Navigation Links
Central tolerance

Central tolerance is the mechanism by which newly developing T cells and B cells are rendered non-reactive to self.[1] The process is required due to the random generation of receptor specificities that occurs during T cell and B cell differentiation, whereby a proportion of the cells generated are self-reactive (recognise the component self antigens of the host).

In mammals the process occurs in the thymus (T cells)[2][3] and bone marrow (B cells), when maturing lymphocytes are exposed to self antigens. Self antigens are present in both organs due to endogenous expression within the organ and importation of antigen due to circulation from peripheral sites. In the case of T cell central tolerance, additional sources of antigen are made available in the thymus by the action of the transcription factor AIRE.

After exposure to self antigens, T cells and B cells become immunologically tolerant (non-reactive) in a number of ways :

Genetic defects in these processes lead to autoimmunity, such as in the human syndromes APS-1 and IPEX.


  1. ^
  2. ^ Sprent J, Kishimoto H (2001). "The thymus and central tolerance". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 356 (1409): 609-16. PMID 11375064.
  3. ^ Hogquist K, Baldwin T, Jameson S (2005). "Central tolerance: learning self-control in the thymus". Nat Rev Immunol 5 (10): 772-82. PMID 16200080.
  4. ^ Halverson R, Torres R, Pelanda R (2004). "Receptor editing is the main mechanism of B cell tolerance toward membrane antigens". Nat Immunol 5 (6): 645-50. PMID 15156139.


(Date:6/25/2016)... ... June 25, 2016 , ... ... recover from injury. Recently, he has implemented orthobiologic procedures as a method for ... is one of the first doctors to perform the treatment. Orthobiologics are substances ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... 2016 , ... A recent article published June 14 on E ... goes on to state that individuals are now more comfortable seeking to undergo not ... as calf and cheek reduction. The Los Angeles area medical group, Beverly Hills Physicians ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... Marcy was in a crisis. Her son James, eight, was ... his family verbally and physically. , “When something upset him, he couldn’t control his emotions,” ... He would throw rocks at my other children and say he was going to kill ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... ... micro-osteoperforation for accelerated orthodontic treatment. Dr. Cheng has extensive experience with all areas ... , AcceleDent, and accelerated osteogenic orthodontics. , Micro-osteoperforation is a revolutionary adjunct ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... ... June 24, 2016 , ... People across the U.S. are sharpening ... Talker Award, an essay contest in which patients and their families pay tribute to ... at the 2016 National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) Annual Education Conference (AEC) this ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
Other medicine definition