Navigation Links
Anterior mediastinal mass


Anterior mediastinal compartment, also known as anterosuperior compartment, is anterior to the pericardium. Masses in this area is more likely to be malignant than those in other compartments (1) Most common masses found here include thymomas, germ cell tumors, lymphomas, thyroid tissue, and parathyroid lesions.

Thymoma

Main article: thymoma

Most common primary anterior mediastinal tumor (20%) in adults but rarely seen in children. It can be classified as lymphocytic, epithelial, or spindle cell histologies, but this is not very significant clinically (2). Tonofibrils seen under electron microscopy can differentiate thymoma from other tumors such as carcinoid, Hodgkin's, and seminoma. Patients are usually asymptomatic but can present with myasthenia gravis-related symptoms, substernal pain, dyspnea, or cough. Invasive tumors can produce compression effects such as superior vena cava syndrome. (3,4) Thymomas are diagnosed with CT or MRI revealing mass in anterior mediastinum. Therapy in stage I tumors consists of surgical ressection with good prognosis. Stage II-III requires maximal resection possible followed by radation. Stage IV disease requires addition of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in addition to those in stage II and III. For those with invasive thymoma, treatment is based on induction chemotherapy, surgical resection, and post-surgical radiation. 5-year survival for invasive thymoma is between 12-54% regardless of any myasthenia gravis symptoms (5,6).

Lymphoma

Main article: lymphoma

Secondary most common primary anterior mediastinal mass in adults. Most are seen in the anterior compartment and rest are seen in middle compartment. Hodgkin's usually present in 40-50's with nodular sclerosing type (7), and non-Hogdkin's in all age groups. Can also be primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma with poor prognosis (8,9). Common symptoms include fever, weight loss, night sweats, and compressive symptoms such as pain, dyspnea, wheezing, SVC syndrome, pleural effusions (10,11). Diagnosis usually by CT showing lobulated mass. Confirmation done by tissue biopsy of accompanying nodes if any, mediastinoscopy, mediastinotomy, or thoracotomy. FNA biopsy usually not adequate. (12,13,14) Treatment of mediastinal Hodgkin's involves chemotherapy and/or radiation. 5 year survival is now around 75%. Mediastinal non-Hodgkin's only has median survival of 13 months even with chemotherapy and radiation. (15) Large-cell type may have somewhat better prognosis. Surgery is generally not performed because of invasive nature of tumor.


'"/>


(Date:7/23/2017)... ... July 23, 2017 , ... A 20-year-long study by a ... by the Minneapolis Veterans Administration Health Care System overwhelmingly supports growing evidence that prostate ... few benefits. , In the cases involved with this study, surgery did not ...
(Date:7/23/2017)... LA (PRWEB) , ... July 23, 2017 , ... ... to interact, thus improving communication, safety and patient-provider relationships. New tools are helping ... to results of the 19th Annual Health Care’s Most Wired® survey, released today ...
(Date:7/23/2017)... ... July 23, 2017 , ... Viora Ltd., a leading medical ... No. 9,038,640 by the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The patent applies ... Switching, Vacuum, and Cooling mechanisms to further increase the efficacy and safety of ...
(Date:7/21/2017)... ... ... "As a doctor of lung medicine managing chest diseases for more than two ... inventor from Center Valley, Pa. "My idea is to improve the device to a ... PLEURAL SAFE-t-STAT CATHETER KIT to offer an efficient means of draining pleural fluid from ...
(Date:7/21/2017)... , ... July 21, 2017 , ... ... assistance and financial planning services to families and business owners in northern Florida, ... that promises to provide support to area adults with developmental challenges. , The ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):
Other medicine definition