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Transformation of Filamentous Fungi by High-Voltage Electroporation

400 l produced lower numbers of transformants. This result could be expected since reducing the cross-sectional area of the solution at the electrode surface increases the resistance (Shigekawa and Dower, 1988).


Conclusions
There are two major advantages of electroporation over the traditional chemical method of transformation. The first is simplicity: the OSC do not need to be purified by sorbitol gradients, and it is possible to perform many electro-transformations at one time. The second advantage we found is that electroporation is more reproducible than PEG-mediated transformation. An important difference we observed between the two methods was the stability of transformants from T. harzianum when transformed with the plasmid pAN7-1. A possible explanation for this effect could be the activation of the repair system caused by the high-voltage electric pulse.

The results presented here show that OSC from T. harzianum can be efficiently transformed by electroporation. Electroporation is rapid, easy to perform, and requires minimal sample preparation. Therefore, it may prove to be a general method useful for introducing DNA into many fungal species in addition to T. harzianum, A. nidulans (Richey et al., 1989), F. solani (Richey et al., 1989), S. cerevisiae (Delorme, 1989; Hashimoto et al., 1985; Hill, 1989; Karube et al., 1985; Meilhoc et al., 1990; Rech et al., 1990; Weaver et al., 1988), S. pombe (Hood and Stachow, 1990; Weaver et al., 1988), and D. discoideum (Dynes and Firtel, 1989; Egelhoff et al., 1989; Howard et al., 1988). This report presents possibilities to improve transformation systems that have already been described, or to transform other filamentous fungi where
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