Navigation Links
The Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by LC/MS/MS Using ,,, an Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Source

The atmospheric pressure photoionization source, PhotoSpray ion source (Robb, Covey and Bruins1) uses photons to ionize large quantities of a dopant molecule added along with the vaporized mobile phase. Analyte molecules are efficiently ionized through secondary reactions initiated by the charged dopant. This new technique was used to develop an analytical method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), comparing the difference under reverse phase and normal phase chromatographic conditions. A total of 16 PAHs were analysed including the determination of unknown quantities in atmospheric samples from both rural and urban areas.

Introduction

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of over 100 different chemicals, typically formed during incomplete combustion, which are present in a variety of environmental matrices. Airborne PAHs, usually found in aerosol particles, are implicated in heterogeneous atmospheric processing and as important indicators of gas-phase atmospheric processes. Certain carcinogenic PAHs may be carried by ultrafine particles in ambient air into the lungs, and are often the targets of rigorous environmental monitoring. Currently, environmental PAHs are most commonly analysed by HPLC or GC/EI-MS; techniques which require long, high-resolution separations, and complicated MS methods. Atmospheric pressure photoionization is a new technique that uses the energy of photons to generate ions from the vaporized eluent of an LC. This study compares the analysis of PAHs by LC/MS/MS using both reverse phase and normal phase chromatographic conditions.

Materials and methods

A 20 ppm stock standard solution containing 16 common PAHs (see Figure 1). Under optimized LC/MS/MS conditions for both reversed phase and normal phase chromatographic conditions, the performance, linearity and LOD levels were determined. The most abundant single positive transition for each PAH compound was used to construct an +MRM method. Concentrations from ambient air for several PAHs were determined from samples collected on high volume filters at both urban and rural sites. Standard solutions were prepared by serial dilution in acetonitrile/ water and iso-octane for reversed phase and normal phase conditions, respectively. Spectrometer: API 3000 LC/MS/MS System with Analyst Software PhotoSpray Source (see Figure 2 and 3) HPLC: Perkin-Elmer 200 Series Autosampler and Micro pumps

LC conditions: Acetonitrile/water (gradient mode) flow at 1.0 mL/min Column: Hypersil PAH, 100 x 4.6 mm; 5 m, 50:50 post column split Normal phase conditions: 100% iso-octane (isocratic mode) flow at 0.5 mL/min Column: Spherisorb Silica, 250 x 4.6 mm; 5 m Dopant: Toluene at a flowrate of 100 l/min.

Results

The source uses a modified housing of a conventional APCI source. The corona discharge needle has been removed and replaced with a connection for the lamp gas (nitrogen) which protects the Magnesium Fluoride optical window from the vaporised mobile phase.

Reversed phase PAH separation was accomplished by gradient flow (ACN/H2O) through a Hypersil PAH column, 100 x 4.6 mm; 5 m. Individual MRM transitions were monitored simultaneously for 16 common PAHs (see Figure 1 for corresponding PAH). Figure 4 is a 20 L injection of a 5 ng/L solution (100 ng on column).

Normal phase PAH separation was accomplished with 100% iso-octane through a Spherisorb Silica column, 250 x 4.6 mm; 5 m. Individual MRM transitions were monitored for 16 common PAHs (see Figure 1 for corresponding PAH). Figure 5 is a 20 L injection of a 5 ng/L solution (100 ng on column)

The observed response for PAHs under normal phase conditions show an increase on the order of 10 to 70 times of that observed under reversed phase conditions (Figure 6).

The post-column addition of dopant flow can have an effect on the overall response. This will vary from compound to compound. As shown in Figure 7, the response of naphthalene is increased by a factor of 7, while the response of benzo(a)pyrene is relatively unchanged.

Under normal phase conditions, 5000 pg/L fell out of the calibration range for most PAHs, except Indeno(1,2,3,c,d) pyrene and Dibenz(a,h)anthracene. Reversed phase conditions could be calibrated as high as 5000 pg/L (Figure 8).

Ambient air samples were collected on high volume filters(subsequently solvent extracted, dried to 0.2 ml) from three locations, rural, urban and a traffic tunnel. Sample chromatogramsare shown in Figure 9, and calculated ambient concentrations are shown in Table 2.

Conclusions

  • The new PhotoSpray source provides a sensitive ionization technique for analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by LC/MS/MS.
  • Normal phase conditions provide an increase in sensitivity by a factor of at least 10 and as much as 70 over reversed phase conditions.
  • The APPI LC/MS/MS normal phase method provides adequate sensitivity to be useful in the analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples for PAHs.

References

1Robb, D. B., Covey, T. R., Bruins, A. P., Anal. Chem. 2000, 72, 3653-3659.

Authors

Gary Impey, Byron Kieser, Jean-Franois Alary, Applied Biosystems/MDS SCIEX

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Satoshi Irei (York University, Toronto, Canada) for supplying PAH standards and the ambient air samples for analysis.


'"/>

Source:


Page: All 1 2 3

Related biology technology :

1. A Positive Selection Assay for Mutation Analysis in Big Blue Animals
2. Epitope-Tagging Vectors for Functional Analysis in Yeast
3. Map and Link Human Genetic Disorders with SSLP Analysis
4. CastAway Precast Gels for Rapid Automated DNA Sequence Analysis
5. Single-cell RT-PCR Analysis of Paramecium Primaurelia with the Eppendorf cMaster RTplusPCR System
6. Structural Analysis of Glycosylated Peptides in Complex Mixtures with Ion Trap MSn
7. Use of Transcriptor Reverse Transcriptase in Microarray Analysis
8. Increased Sensitivity in Microarray Analysis
9. Gene-Expression Analysis of TP, DPD, and TS Using the LightCycler mRNA Quantification KitsPLUS
10. Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer Automated Analysis System
11. Analysis of Microarray Data
Post Your Comments:
(Date:11/26/2014)... The Pittcon marketing department is pleased ... exposition mobile app, Pittcon 2015 . ... App Store for iOS and Android devices and the ... during and after the event. It acts as an ... technical sessions, Conferee Networking sessions and short courses. , ...
(Date:11/26/2014)... SoundConnect , an award winning unified communications ... Darren Suders has joined the team as Director of ... partner program through innovative offerings, consistent partner ... brings more than 10-years of channel telecommunication experience to ... from policy development, to partner education and to expansion. ...
(Date:11/26/2014)... TOKYO , 25 novembre 2014 Theravalues ... Super sur le marché européen au salon Hi ... Amsterdam ). Curcumine la ... une technologie amorphe (non-cristalline) à des ingrédients approuvés ... est un pigment jaune présent dans la racine ...
(Date:11/26/2014)... , Nov. 25, 2014  Roka Bioscience, Inc. (NASDAQ: ... providing advanced testing solutions for the detection of foodborne pathogens, ... at the Piper Jaffray  26 th Annual Healthcare Conference ... be held at The New York Palace in ... presentation, material information concerning the Company, its operations, strategies and ...
Breaking Biology Technology:Pittcon Releases 2015 Mobile App 2SoundConnect Appoints Director of Channel Development & Sales 2La curcumine présentant la plus haute biodisponibilité bientôt en vente en Europe 2La curcumine présentant la plus haute biodisponibilité bientôt en vente en Europe 3Roka Bioscience to Present at the Piper Jaffray Healthcare Conference 2
... Restriction Digests of DNA Isolated with the Perfectprep , ... , , , George Halley, Eppendorf 5 Prime, ... Introduction , Agarose gel electrophoresis is used ... used for downstream applications. Eppendorfs , Perfectprep Gel Cleanup kit ...
...
Eppendorf UVette Material Compatibility , , , , , , , , , , , , , , KEY: , AStable after 24 hours , BProperties of UVett...
Cached Biology Technology:Restriction Digests of DNA Isolated with the Perfectprep , Gel Cleanup Kit 2Restriction Digests of DNA Isolated with the Perfectprep , Gel Cleanup Kit 3Restriction Digests of DNA Isolated with the Perfectprep , Gel Cleanup Kit 4Restriction Digests of DNA Isolated with the Perfectprep , Gel Cleanup Kit 5
(Date:11/15/2014)... YORK , Nov. 13, 2014  While we may ... technology Doctor McCoy used in "Star Trek" to gain instant ... tools designed to work with smartphones and tablets for monitoring ... of the healthcare world. This may seem a tad Orwellian ... ready to adopt some of these technological opportunities into their ...
(Date:11/10/2014)... detergent pods began appearing on U.S. store shelves in ... numbers ever since. The small packets can be tossed ... out a liquid or powder. The convenience, though, has ... study from researchers at Nationwide Children,s Hospital found that ... reports of 17,230 children younger than 6 years of ...
(Date:11/7/2014)... -- Leading Biometric companies aim to provide consumers ... transactions.  Companies in focus today are: NXT-ID, Inc. (NASDAQ: ... ), Google Inc. (NASDAQ: GOOG ), Microsoft Corporation ... EBAY ) and MasterCard Inc. (NYSE: MA) NXT-ID, ... authentication company focused on the growing mobile commerce is pleased ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Americans May Be Ready for a Brave New World of Healthcare 2Americans May Be Ready for a Brave New World of Healthcare 3Americans May Be Ready for a Brave New World of Healthcare 4Study finds laundry detergent pods, serious poisoning risk for children 2Universal Authentication Methods Provide More Secure Operations for Biometrics Devices - Company Joins FIDO Alliance for Consumer Protection 2Universal Authentication Methods Provide More Secure Operations for Biometrics Devices - Company Joins FIDO Alliance for Consumer Protection 3Universal Authentication Methods Provide More Secure Operations for Biometrics Devices - Company Joins FIDO Alliance for Consumer Protection 4Universal Authentication Methods Provide More Secure Operations for Biometrics Devices - Company Joins FIDO Alliance for Consumer Protection 5Universal Authentication Methods Provide More Secure Operations for Biometrics Devices - Company Joins FIDO Alliance for Consumer Protection 6
... 2011 (Rome, Italy) -- Researchers speaking in the second ... Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention (IAS 2011) have today provided ... and alerted delegates to the challenges that developing countries ... antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage. The presentations reflect the ...
... Small-scale fisheries could pose a more serious threat to ... University of Exeter, published today (19 July) in the ... shows that tens of thousands of turtles from across ... small-scale fisheries. Focusing on fisheries in Peru, the ...
... use various appendages to move across surfaces prior to ... jerky form of movement known as "twitching" motility, which ... called type IV pili, or TFP. ... a professor of bioengineering and of chemistry and biochemistry ...
Cached Biology News:Plenary speakers address challenges in the delivery of sustained antiretroviral therapy in developing countries, call for social scientists to take their place at the HIV/AIDS policy-making table, and stress the need for a long-term response to AIDS 2Plenary speakers address challenges in the delivery of sustained antiretroviral therapy in developing countries, call for social scientists to take their place at the HIV/AIDS policy-making table, and stress the need for a long-term response to AIDS 3Study shows small-scale fisheries' impact on marine life 2UCLA study shows bacteria use Batman-like grappling hooks to 'slingshot' on surfaces 2
Mouse monoclonal [SPM325] to Xanthine Oxidase, prediluted ( Abpromise for all tested applications). Antigen: C terminal 358 amino acid fragment of human xanthine oxidase. Entrez Gene ID: 749...
Mouse monoclonal [2G1] to Vancomycin ( Abpromise for all tested applications)....
Phospho- (Ser) 14-3-3 Binding Motif (4E2) Mouse mAb...
Request Info...
Biology Products: