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Proteomics in Bladder Cancer Research: Protein Profiling of Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinomas, Rev C

Julio E Celis1, Morten stergaard1, Pamela Celis1, Hanne Holm Rasmussen1, and Hans Wolf 2
1 Department of Medical Biochemistry and Danish Centre for Human Genome Research, The University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark
2 Department of Urology, Skejby Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark


Bladder cancer comprises a broad spectrum of tumors that includes transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs), squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), adenocarcinomas, small cell carcinomas, and leiomyomas (Pauli et al. 1983). TCCs are by far the most prevalent tumors and represent nearly 90% of all bladder cancers in the Western Hemisphere. SCCs, on the other hand, encompass a small percentage (23%) of all bladder lesions diagnosed in Europe and America, but are very frequent (80%) in areas of Africa and the Middle East where Schistosoma haematobium, a parasite that induces bladder SCCs in humans, is prevalent (El-Bolkainy 1983). SCCs often arise in patients who have a history of many years of chronic inflammation, keratinizing squamous metaplasia, and bladder stones. SCCs are highly malignant and the success of treatment relies heavily on early detection.

The histogenesis of SCCs is unclear, although these lesions may arise from extensive squamous differentiation of TCCs, i.e., carcinoma in situ (CIS) or high-grade papillary TCCs, and from neoplastic transformation on the basis of squamous metaplasia of the bladder urothelium (Figure 1) (Sakamoto et al. 1992, stergaard et al. 1997). SCCs are composed of one cell type closely resembling keratinocytes both in morphology and protein expression profiles (Celis et al. 1996b, stergaard et al. 1997; compare also
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