interferon A cytokine that inhibits virus reproduction. Interferons also affect growth and development (differentiation) in certain normal and tumor cells.
in vitro Performed in the laboratory rather than in a living organism (in vivo).
ligase An enzyme that causes fragments of DNA or RNA to link together; used with restriction enzymes to create recombinant DNA.
lymphocytes White blood cells that produce antibodies.
lysosomes Cell organelles containing enzymes, responsible for degrading proteins and other materials ingested by the cell.
MAb Monoclonal antibody: A highly specific, purified antibody that recog nizes only a single antigen.
macrokinetics Movement of whole cells and their media within a bioreactor.
media A (usually sterile) preparation made for the growth, storage, mainte nance, or transport of microorganisms or other cells.
metabolites Chemical byproducts of metabolism , the chemical process of life.
microbiology The study of microscopic life such as bacteria, viruses, and yeast.
microcarrier A microscopic particle (often, a 200-m polymer bead) that supports cell attachment and growth in suspension culture.
microencapsulated Surrounded by a thin, protective layer of biodegrad able substance referred to as a microsphere.
microheterogeneity Slight differences in the amino acid sequence of a
protein. For example, to produce a recombinant protein in E. coli , a methion
ine (met) must be added to one end of the protein sequence to act as a sig
nal that initiates pro