eukaryotes Complex organisms, often multicellular, whose cells contain nuclei.
exogenous Developing from outside, originating externally. Exogenous fac tors can be external factors such as food and light that affect an organism.
express To translate a cells genetic information, stored in its DNA (gene), into a specific protein.
expression system Organisms chosen to manufacture (by expression) a protein of interest through recombinant DNA technology.
expression vector A way of delivering foreign genes to a host, creating recombinant organism that will express the desired protein.
fermentor A bioreactor used to grow bacteria or yeasts in liquid culture.
floc A fluffy aggregate that resembles a woolly cloud.
fusion partner When making a small protein or peptide in E. coli , it is often necessary to produce the protein fused to a larger protein to get high levels of stable expression. The resulting fusion protein must be cleaved (chemically or enzymatically broken) to yield the desired protein or peptide. The nonproduct fusion partner is left over and usually thrown away.
gene The unit of inheritance consisting of a sequence of DNA, occupying specific position within the genome. Three types of genes have been identified: structural genes encoding particular proteins; regulatory genes controlling the expression of the other genes; and genes for transfer RNA or ribosomal RNA instead of proteins.
genetic engineering Altering the genetic structure of an organism (adding