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Glossary for The BioPharm Guide to Fermentation and Cell Culture

ytoplasm The protoplasm of a cell outside the nucleus (inside the nucleus is it called nucleoplasm ). Protoplasm is a semifluid, viscous, translucent mixture of water, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and inorganic salts found in all plant and animal cells.

cytostat Something that retards cellular activity and production. This can refer to cytostatic agents or to machinery, such as those that would freeze cells.

dalton The unit of molecular weight, equal to the weight of a hydrogen atom.

downstream processing Bioprocessing steps following fermentation and/or cell culture, a sequence of separation and purification activities needed to obtain the required drug product at the necessary level of purity.

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) The nucleic acid based on deoxyribose (a sugar) and the nucleotides G, A, T, and C. Occurring in a corkscrew-ladder shape, it is the primary component of chromosomes, which thus carry inheritable charac teristics of life.

DNA fingerprinting Sequences of nucleic acids in specific areas (loci) on a DNA molecule are polymorphic , meaning that the genes in those locations may differ from person to person. DNA fragments can be cut from those sequences using restriction enzymes. Fragments from various samples can be analyzed to determine whether they are from the same person. The technique of analyzing restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) is called DNA typing or DNA fingerprinting.

DNA vaccine A nucleic acid vaccine: Genes coding for specific antigenic proteins are injected to produce those antigens and trigger an immune response.

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