CIP (clean in place) A way to clean large vessels (tanks, piping, and associated equipment) without moving them or taking them apart, using a highpressure rinsing treatment, sometimes followed by steam-in-place (SIP) sanitization.
clean room A room in which the concentration of airborne particulate matter is controlled at specific limits to facilitate the manufacture of sterile and high-purity products. Clean rooms are classified according to the number of particles per volume of air.
clearance Demonstrated removal according to specified parameters.
clone To duplicate exactly, whether a gene or a whole organism; or an organism that is a genetically identical copy of another organism.
cloning vectors Methods of transferring desired genes to organisms that will be used to express them. Cloning vectors are used to make recombinant organisms.
cosmid An artificially constructed plasmid vector that contains a specific bacteriophage gene, which allows it to carry up to 45,000 base pairs of desired DNA.
Creutzfeld-Jacob disease A disease affecting the human nervous system, believed to be caused by a prion that also causes bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or Mad Cow Disease in cattle.
cryopreservation Maintenance of frozen cells, usually in liquid nitrogen.
cytokine A protein that acts as a chemical messenger to stimulate cell migration, usually toward where the protein was released. Interleukins, lym phokines, and interferons are the most common.
cytopathic Damaging to cells, causing them to exhibit signs of disease.
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