biopharmaceutical A therapeutic product created through the genetic manipulation of living things, including (but not limited to) proteins and monoclonal antibodies, peptides, and other molecules that are not chemically synthesized, along with gene therapies, cell therapies, and engineered tissues.
bioprocessing Using organisms or biologically derived macromolecules to carry out enzymatic reactions or to manufacture products.
bioreactor A vessel capable of supporting a cell culture in which a biological transformation takes place (also called a fermentor or reactor).
broth The contents of a microbial bioreactor: cells, nutrients, waste, and so on.
cascade effects A series of events that result from one initial cause.
catabolites Waste products of catabolism , by which organisms convert substances into excreted compounds.
cell culture Cells taken from a living organism and grown under controlled conditions (in culture). Methods used to maintain cell lines or strains.
cell lines When cells from the first culture (taken from the organism) are used to make subsequent cultures, a cell line is established. Thanks to genetic or other manipulations, immortal cell lines can replicate indefinitely.
chemostat A growth chamber that keeps a bacterial culture at a specific volume and rate of growth by limiting nutrient medium and removing spent culture.
chromosome A long and complex DNA chain containing the genetic information
(genes) of a cell. Prokaryotes contain only a single chromosome;
eukaryotes have more than one, made up of a complex of DNA, RNA, and
protein. The exact number of chromosomes is