titer A measured sample. (To draw a measured, representative sample from a larger amount is to titrate .)
transgenics The alteration of plant or animal DNA so that it contains a gene from another organism. There are two types of cells in animals and plants, germ line cells (the sperm and egg in animals, pollen and ovule in plants) and somatic cells (all of the other cells). It is the germ-line DNA that is altered in transgenic animals and plants, so those alterations are passed on to off spring. Transgenic animals are used to produce therapeutics, to study dis ease, or to improve livestock strains. Transgenic plants have been created for increased resistance to disease and insects as well as to make biopharma ceuticals.
translation The process by which information transferred from DNA by RNA specifies the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide (protein) chain.
trypsin, tryptic digestion Trypsin allows the growth of cells as indepen
dent microorganisms distinct from tissue culture by causing cell disaggrega
tion. Excised tissue is softened and treated with a proteolytic enzyme, normally
trypsin, then washed and suspended in a growth medium to produce a prima
ry culture. Subculturing from the primary culture usually involves treatment with
an antitrypsin (such as serum) to pr