scale-up To take a biopharmaceutical manufacturing process from the labo ratory scale to a scale at which it is commercially feasible.
seed stock The initial inoculum, or the cells placed in growth medium from which other cells will grow.
sequence The precise order of bases in a nucleic acid or amino acids in a protein.
serum The watery portion of an animal or plant fluid (such as blood) remain ing after coagulation. When cheese is made, whey is the milk serum thats left.
SIP Steam in place or sterilize in place (see CIP).
somatic cell In higher organisms, a cell that (unlike germ cells) carries the full genetic make-up of an organism.
sparge To spray. A sparger is the component of a fermentor that sprays air into the broth.
strain A population of cells all descended from a single cell.
substrate Reactive material, the substance on which an enzyme acts.
substratum The solid surface of which a cell moves or on which cells grow.
supernatant Material floating on the surface of a liquid mixture (often the liquid component that has the lowest density).
surfactant Any substance that changes the nature of a surface, such as lowering the surface tension of water.
suspension Particles floating in (not necessarily on) a liquid medium, or the mix of particles and liquid itself.
symbiotic Living together for mutual benefit.
synthesis Creating products through chemical and enzymatic reactions.
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