Many of these terms have more general definitions as well. Those given here are specific to their application in cell culture and fermentation.
absorption Removing a particular antibody or antigen from a sample (from serum, for example) by adding the corresponding antigen or antibody to that sample.
adsorption Nonspecific adherence of substances in solution or suspension to cells or other particulate matter.
adventitious agents Acquired, sporadic, accidental contaminants.
aerobe An aerobic organism is one that grows in the presence of oxygen. A strict aerobe grows only under such a condition.
aggregate A clustered mass of individual cells solid, fluffy, or pelletized that can clog the pores of filters or other fermentation apparatus.
amino acids A class of 20 hydrocarbon molecules that combine to form proteins in living things.
anaerobe An anaerobic organism grows in the absence of air or oxygen. Some anaerobic organisms are killed by brief exposure to oxygen, whereas oxygen may just retard or stop the growth of others.
antibody An infection-fighting protein molecule that tags, neutralizes, and helps destroy foreign microorganisms or toxins. Also known as immunoglobulins , antibodies are produced by the immune system in response to antigens, which are often bacterial or viral particles or components.
antifoam agent A chemical added to the fermentation broth to reduce surface tension and counteract the foaming (bubbles) that can be caused by mixing, sparging, or stirring.
antigen (antigenicity) Any agent, often