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Front-face detection for high-concentrate, opaque or solid sample

When working with highly-concentrated, opaque, or solid samples such as blood, paint, optical brighteners, living cells, polymer films, or phosphors, front-face fluorescence detection offers significant advantages for quantitative and qualitative fluorescence measurements. Highly concentrated and opaque liquids typically have problems with self-absorption and complete attenuation of the beam. When measuring fluorescence at 90, intensity measurements may not be reproducible or detectable, and the excitation or emission spectra may appear distorted. Front-face detection offers the solution for these problems.

Using the technique of front-face detection for opaque liquids and solids can be an important analytical tool for characterizing fluorescence of various sample types. In the front-face technique, the excitation light is focused to the front surface of the samples and then fluorescence emission is collected from the same region at an angle that minimizes reflected and scattered light.

Types of Samples

Highly concentrated: blood, oil, optical brighteners
Highly opaque: paints, phosphors
Solids: polymers, films, paper, contact lenses, crystals

Front-Face Detection

FLUOROLOG Use the 22.5 collection path for liquid and solid samples.
FLUOROMAX Use the Model 1933 Solid-Sample Holder at a 30/60 angle for solids. For liquids, use the Model 1967 Front-Face Thermostatted Cell Holder with magnetic stirrer accessory.

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