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Electrophoretic Karyotypes of Wine Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

antitative analysis leading to a direct determination of chromosome copy number based on densitometric scanning of an ethidium bromide-stained gel or an X-ray film of a probed blot is complicated by at least four factors: 1) the difficulty of loading DNA samples corresponding to equivalent numbers of cells per strain; 2) variability in chromosome length observed for otherwise apparently homologous chromosomes; 3) the possibility of translocations or deletions which interfere with band identification if probes containing the rearranged sequences are used; and 4) the possibility of sequence heterology of functionally homologous genes resulting in differential hybridization. This has been observed for probes derived from laboratory strains of S. cerevisiae used in hybridizations with a distilling strain,7 lager strains, 4, 8, 12, 10, 13 and a lager strain in which both S. cerevisiae- and S. carlsbergensis- derived probes were used.5


Conclusions
While a simple and direct electrophoretic analysis of genetically complex industrial strains of S. cerevisiae provides useful qualitative data concerning their chromosomal constitutions, a more valuable quantitative analysis that might indicate directly the number of copies of each chromosome requires further development. Minimal requirements include inclusion of an internal standard such as an artifical chromosome2 carrying a marker conferring a known additive phenotype, identification of bands having no laboratory strain counterparts, and a means of interpreting putative doublet bands.


References
1. Bakalinsky, A. T. and Snow, R., Yeast, 6, 367-382 (1990).
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