Navigation Links
Cell Proliferation Assay Using the Benchmark Plus Microplate Spectrophotometer

William C Heiser, PhD and Ma Theresa Redila-Flores, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc . , Hercules, CA 94547 USA

An accurate and rapid assessment of viable cell number and proliferation is often required for in vitro and in vivo experiments. These assessments are necessary and useful for analysis of growth factor activity, drug screening, serum batch testing, and toxicological determination of carcinogenic compounds, to name a few. Cell proliferation kits are used to measure cell viability and division in response to growth factors, cytokines, and nutrients, as well as growth inhibition by cytotoxic agents. The cell proliferation kit described here utilizes a microplate spectrophotometer to quantitate an assay based on XTT, a tetrazolium salt that is cleaved as a result of metabolic activity to generate a colored formazan product.

A cell proliferation kit from Roche was used to measure proliferation of A549 cells grown at different densities overnight. The cells were incubated with XTT before measuring the absorbance. To confirm the optimal wavelength at which to read the samples, a spectral scan was done. The cells were then read after 1, 2, and 3 hr of incubation as suggested in the kit instructions.

1. Inoculate A549 cells into a 25 cm2 flask with DMEM or appropriate medium. Grow cells to 70% confluence.

2. Wash cells with 1x PBS. Trypsinize, then add 2 ml of appropriate medium.

3. Dilute cells 10-fold, to about 2.5 x 105 cells/ml. Prepare 2-fold dilutions and plate 100 l of each dilution in replicates of 5 in a 96-well plate. Prepare a blank by dispensing medium without cells in replicates of 5. Swirl the plate to evenly distribute cells in the wells. Incubate plate overnight at 37C.

4. Prepare XTT labeling mix according to instructions and add 50 l to each well. Incubate at 37C for 1, 2, and 3 hr.

5. After 1 hr of incubation, place the plate into the Benchmark Plus.

6. To determine the optimum wavelength for the assay, run a spectral scan. In Microplate Manager PC software, select File>New Endpoint Protocol>Advanced Options>Scan Well. Scan three wells with different cell densities a cross the wavelength range 340800 nm with a step size of 5 nm. Next, construct a graph to show the peak wavelength around 475 nm (the re commended wavelength for reading the assay) for all samples scanned.

7. After the spectral scan, open the Microplate Manager software application. Under the File menu, select New Endpoint Protocol. Next, select the 96-well format and edit the template, selecting the wells used. Specify a single-wavelength reading at the peak wavelength determined in step 6.

8. Assay the plate using the Benchmark Plus by clicking the Run button. Repeat for the 2 and 3 hr incubation times.

9. After reading the samples, export or copy and paste the data points into Microsoft Excel software and plot them.

Figure 1 shows the results obtained by scanning sample wells with different cell densities (step 6 of Procedure). The scan resulted in an absorbance curve that peaked at about 475 nm, the wavelength specified for sample reading in the XTT kit instructions.

The assay was performed at 475 nm. Figure 2 shows a proportional increase in the OD value at 475 nm with increasing cell number.

The measurement of cell viability and cell division is used in a wide range of experiments to determine growth factor activity, for drug screening, and to determine the effects of chemical transfectants on human cells. We tested the Roche cell proliferation kit for measurement of cell density of A549 cells grown in 96-well plates. After 24 hr, when the cells were ~90% confluent in the wells with the most cells, we performed the cell proliferation assay.

At low cell density (cells ~50% confluent on the plate), there was a proportional increase in OD 475 with increasing cell number. At high cell density, the increase in OD 475 was not proportional to the increase in cell number. As seen in the figure, this increase was independent of the length of incubation with the reagent between 1 and 3 hr. However, at shorter incubation times (0.5 hr, data not shown), the OD 475 was proportional to cell number up to 5070% confluence.

Guide to Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis Methods, Roche Applied Science, available online at prod_inf/manuals/cell_man/cell_toc.html

Roehm NW et al., An improved colorimetric assay for cell proliferation and viability utilizing the tetrazolium salt XTT, J Immunol Methods 142, 257265 (1991)

back to top


Page: All 1 2 3

Related biology technology :

1. Cell Proliferation Kit Outperforms the Competition in the Range of Cells Typically Counted
2. Quantitative Measurement of Cell Proliferation Using the BrdU ELISA: A Comparison Between Colorimetric and Chemiluminescent Detection
3. Cell Proliferation and Viability Measurement
4. measuring cell proliferation with SpectraMax M5, M2 and Gemini microplate readers using the CyQUANT Cell Proliferation Assay
5. Identification of cells in S phase using the Cell Proliferation Fluorescence Kit and IN Cell Analyzer 1000
6. Cell Proliferation Assays
7. A Positive Selection Assay for Mutation Analysis in Big Blue Animals
8. Luminol-enhanced Assay for Superoxide Anion (O2 face="Symbol" )
9. Organize Your Data from the Big Blue Mutation Assay
10. Fluorescence-Based Single-Tube Assays to Rapidly Detect Human Gene Mutations
11. RNase Protection Assay (RPA) Using DIG-Labeled RNA Probes
Post Your Comments:

(Date:11/24/2015)... Nov. 24, 2015 /PRNewswire/ - Aeterna Zentaris Inc. (NASDAQ: ... on behalf of the Toronto Stock Exchange, confirms that ... are no corporate developments that would cause the recent ... --> --> About Aeterna Zentaris Inc. ... --> Aeterna Zentaris is a specialty biopharmaceutical ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... ... 24, 2015 , ... This fall, global software solutions leader SAP and AdVenture ... develop and pitch their BIG ideas to improve health and wellness in their schools. ... to win the title of SAP's Teen Innovator, an all-expenses paid trip to Super ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... November 24, 2015 --> ... research report released by Transparency Market Research, the global ... a CAGR of 17.5% during the period between 2014 ... - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Volume, Share, Growth, Trends ... prenatal testing market to reach a valuation of US$2.38 ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... 2015  Twist Bioscience, a company focused on ... Twist Bioscience chief executive officer, will present at ... 1, 2015 at 3:10 p.m. Eastern Time at The Lotte ... --> --> About ... is on Twitter. Sign up to follow our ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
(Date:10/26/2015)... LAS VEGAS , Oct. 26, 2015 /PRNewswire/ ... innovator in modern authentication and a founding member of ... of its latest version of the Nok Nok™ S3 ... use standards-based authentication that supports existing and emerging methods ... is ideal for organizations deploying customer-facing applications that require ...
(Date:10/23/2015)... Oct. 23, 2015 Research and Markets ( ... "Global Voice Recognition Biometrics Market 2015-2019" report to ... --> The global voice recognition biometrics market to ... --> --> The ... prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs ...
(Date:10/22/2015)... (NASDAQ: AWRE ), a leading supplier of biometrics software and ... 30, 2015.  --> --> ... decrease of 33% compared to $6.0 million in the same quarter ... $2.2 million, or $0.10 per diluted share, which compared to $2.6 ... year ago.  --> --> ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):