Navigation Links
Tips from the journals of the American Society for Microbiology
Date:11/13/2008

New Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer May Minimize Viral Transmission, Including Norovirus

A newly developed ethanol-based hand sanitizer may significantly impact public health by minimizing the transmission of multiple viruses, including norovirus, from food handlers and care providers. The researchers from the University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, and North Carolina State University, Raleigh report their findings in the August 2008 issue of the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology.

The annual number of food-related infections in the U.S. is an estimated 76 million, with norovirus accounting for up to 59% of the viral cases. Contamination of ready-to-eat items by food handlers largely attributes to the high rate of infections, emphasizing the importance of proper hand hygiene. In addition to washing with soap and water some organizations such as the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization recommend the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers citing such advantages as faster and greater microbial kill, ease of use and time savings, as well as independence from sinks and running water.

In the study the researchers formed a synergistic blend of ethanol, polyquaternium polymer and organic acid and tested its capability to inhibit human and animal viruses. When compared with a benchmark alcohol-based hand sanitizer, results showed higher levels of reduced infectivity of human rotavirus, adenovirus type 5, poliovirus type 1, and norovirus, as well as feline calicivirus and murine norovirus type 1 from the new ethanol-based sanitizer.

"Based on these results, we conclude that this new ethanol-based hand sanitizer is a promising option for reducing the transmission of enteric viruses, including norovirus, by food handlers and care providers," say the researchers.

(D.R. Macinga, S.A. Sattar, L. Jaykus, J.W. Arbogast. 2008. Improved inactivation of nonenveloped enteric viruses and their surrogates by a novel alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74. 16: 5047-5052.)


New Oral Vaccine May Protect Against Bubonic Plague

Researchers from the Institut Pasteur in Paris, France used a less virulent ancestor to the highly infectious bubonic plague to develop a potentially safe, efficient and inexpensive live oral vaccine. They report their findings in the August 2008 issue of the journal Infection and Immunity.

Transmitted by infected fleas, Yersinia pestis is the causative agent responsible for bubonic and pneumonic plague. Both highly contagious, the bubonic form of the disease is the most common in the world and can be treated; however, pneumonic plague is almost always fatal within 3 days of infection. Pneumonic plague can also be generated into aerosols and transmitted from human to human placing it at serious risk for use as weapon of bioterrorism.

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis shares a genetic identity rate of 95% with Y. pestis, but is much less virulent and rarely attributed to disease-related fatalities. In the study 41 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis were screened for low pathogenicity. Researchers identified one strain (IP32680) which was then tested and found to persist in the mouse intestine for 2 months following intragastric and subcutaneous inoculation without any clinical signs of disease. The previously inoculated mice were then challenged intravenously with Y. pestis following which low levels of the bacteria were found in the organs and blood. Finally, IP32680 was administered orally and results showed that one dose protected 75% of mice, while two doses protected 88%.

"We report that oral inoculation with a Y. pseudotuberculosis strain, selected for its very low virulence, induces an efficient immunity against bubonic plague without causing adverse reactions," say the researchers. "This demonstrates that a live attenuated Y. pseudotuberculosis can be a promising vaccine against bubonic plague."

(T. Blisnick, P. Ave, M. Huerre, E. Carniel, C.E. Demeure. 2008. Oral vaccination against bubonic plague using a live avirulent Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain. Infection and Immunity, 76. 8: 3808-3816.)


Oral Administration of Lactobacillus from Breast Milk May Treat Common Infection in Lactating Mothers

Oral administration of lactobacillus strains found in breast milk may provide an alternative method to antibiotics for effectively treating mastitis, a common infection that occurs in lactating mothers say researchers from Spain. They report their findings in the August 2008 issue of the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology.

Mastitis, inflammation of one or more lobules of the mammary gland, occurs in anywhere from 3 to 33% of lactating mothers and of those incidences 75 to 95% are diagnosed within the first twelve weeks postpartum. While Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are considered to be the main infectious agents associated with mastitis, increased multi-drug resistance to antibiotics are making such infections difficult to treat, therefore prompting researchers to explore alternative treatment options.

In prior studies researchers collected lactobacillus strains from the breast milk of healthy mothers and found the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus salivarious to be comparable to strains currently used in commercial probiotic products. Here the researchers randomly divided twenty women diagnosed with staphylococcal mastitis into two groups, a probiotic group and a control. The probiotic group received the same daily dosage of L. salivarius and L. gasseri for four weeks, both of which were originally isolated from breast milk. Results showed that on day zero staphylococcal counts in both groups were similar. At day fourteen women in the probiotic group were displaying no clinical signs of mastitis, but infection in the control group persisted. Finally, on day thirty the staphylococcal count was lower in the probiotic group and L. salivarius and L. gasseri were detected in milk samples from six of the ten women.

"In conclusion, L. salivarius CECT5713 and L. gasseri CECT5714 appear to be an efficient alternative for the treatment of lactational infectious mastitis during lactation," say the researchers.

(E. Jimenez, L. Fernandez, A. Maldonado, R. Martin, M. Olivares, J. Xaus, J.M. Rodriguez. 2008. Oral administration of Lactobacillus strains isolated from breast milk as an alternative for the treatment of infectious mastitis during lactation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74. 15: 4650-4655.)


'/>"/>

Contact: Carrie Slijepcevic
cslijepcevic@asmusa.org
American Society for Microbiology
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology technology :

1. Tips from the Journals of the American Society for Microbiology
2. ScienceDirect to Host French-Language Journals from Elsevier Masson
3. Three Expert Opinion Journals now Publishing Original Research
4. Tips from the journals of the American Society for Microbiology
5. Vicus Therapeutics to Present at the 234th American Chemical Society National Meeting in Boston, MA
6. SportCoatings; The North American Booster Club Association (NABCA); the Coatings Specialist Group New Booster Program Goes High Tech With Invisible Antimicrobial Defense
7. American Stock Exchange Lists The Common Stock Of Neuralstem, Inc.
8. American Oriental Bioengineering Announces Participation in September Investor Conferences
9. Nektar Presents Positive Results from Phase 1 Clinical Trial of NKTR-118 (oral PEG-naloxol) at American College of Clinical Pharmacology Meeting
10. Rosetta Genomics to Present at the American Association of Cancer Research (AACR) "Molecular Diagnostics in Cancer Therapeutic Development" Conference
11. Trubion Pharmaceuticals Announces Upcoming Presentations at American College of Rheumatology Annual Scientific Meeting
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:2/10/2016)... , Febr. 10, 2016 /PRNewswire/ - BioAmber Inc. (NYSE: ... to announce that Mitsui & Co. Ltd., its partner ... acid plant, is investing an additional CDN$25 million in ... its stake from 30% to 40%.  Mitsui will also ... acid produced in Sarnia , providing ...
(Date:2/10/2016)... , Feb.10, 2016 ASAE is introducing a ... Management Companies (AMC) the option of joining or renewing ... fee determined by staff size, every employee in any ... ASAE and reap all available member benefits.   ... new organizational membership options will allow organizations of any ...
(Date:2/10/2016)... 2016  Matchbook, Inc., a company specializing in ... companies, announced today the appointment of Jim ... brings nearly 25 years of experience in supply ... nearly two decades in executive level roles as ... Genzyme and, most recently headed global logistics and ...
(Date:2/10/2016)... ... February 10, 2016 , ... SonaCare Medical, LLC reports ... program, Sonalinkā„¢ remote monitoring. The inaugural launch of this new technology occurred over ... Dr. Samuel Peretsman to a HIFU technical expert at SonaCare Medical headquarters. ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
(Date:2/8/2016)... Czech Republic , February 8, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... EU-regulated global payment platform which presents innovation for ... Biometrics Authentication feature called VoiceKey. --> ... platform which presents innovation for clients, comfort and ... called VoiceKey. --> Worldcore ...
(Date:2/3/2016)... India , February 3, 2016 ... the new market research report "Automated Fingerprint Identification System ... Search, Latent Search), Application (Banking & Finance, Government, Healthcare, ... published by MarketsandMarkets, the market is expected to be ... CAGR of 21.0% between 2015 and 2020. The transformation ...
(Date:2/2/2016)... YORK , Feb. 2, 2016 ... of the bioinformatic market by reviewing the recent ... enabled tools that drive the field forward. Includes ... to: Identify the challenges and opportunities that ... providers and software solution developers, as well as ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):