Navigation Links
Tips from the journals of the American Society for Microbiology

New Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer May Minimize Viral Transmission, Including Norovirus

A newly developed ethanol-based hand sanitizer may significantly impact public health by minimizing the transmission of multiple viruses, including norovirus, from food handlers and care providers. The researchers from the University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, and North Carolina State University, Raleigh report their findings in the August 2008 issue of the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology.

The annual number of food-related infections in the U.S. is an estimated 76 million, with norovirus accounting for up to 59% of the viral cases. Contamination of ready-to-eat items by food handlers largely attributes to the high rate of infections, emphasizing the importance of proper hand hygiene. In addition to washing with soap and water some organizations such as the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization recommend the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers citing such advantages as faster and greater microbial kill, ease of use and time savings, as well as independence from sinks and running water.

In the study the researchers formed a synergistic blend of ethanol, polyquaternium polymer and organic acid and tested its capability to inhibit human and animal viruses. When compared with a benchmark alcohol-based hand sanitizer, results showed higher levels of reduced infectivity of human rotavirus, adenovirus type 5, poliovirus type 1, and norovirus, as well as feline calicivirus and murine norovirus type 1 from the new ethanol-based sanitizer.

"Based on these results, we conclude that this new ethanol-based hand sanitizer is a promising option for reducing the transmission of enteric viruses, including norovirus, by food handlers and care providers," say the researchers.

(D.R. Macinga, S.A. Sattar, L. Jaykus, J.W. Arbogast. 2008. Improved inactivation of nonenveloped enteric viruses and their surrogates by a novel alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74. 16: 5047-5052.)

New Oral Vaccine May Protect Against Bubonic Plague

Researchers from the Institut Pasteur in Paris, France used a less virulent ancestor to the highly infectious bubonic plague to develop a potentially safe, efficient and inexpensive live oral vaccine. They report their findings in the August 2008 issue of the journal Infection and Immunity.

Transmitted by infected fleas, Yersinia pestis is the causative agent responsible for bubonic and pneumonic plague. Both highly contagious, the bubonic form of the disease is the most common in the world and can be treated; however, pneumonic plague is almost always fatal within 3 days of infection. Pneumonic plague can also be generated into aerosols and transmitted from human to human placing it at serious risk for use as weapon of bioterrorism.

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis shares a genetic identity rate of 95% with Y. pestis, but is much less virulent and rarely attributed to disease-related fatalities. In the study 41 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis were screened for low pathogenicity. Researchers identified one strain (IP32680) which was then tested and found to persist in the mouse intestine for 2 months following intragastric and subcutaneous inoculation without any clinical signs of disease. The previously inoculated mice were then challenged intravenously with Y. pestis following which low levels of the bacteria were found in the organs and blood. Finally, IP32680 was administered orally and results showed that one dose protected 75% of mice, while two doses protected 88%.

"We report that oral inoculation with a Y. pseudotuberculosis strain, selected for its very low virulence, induces an efficient immunity against bubonic plague without causing adverse reactions," say the researchers. "This demonstrates that a live attenuated Y. pseudotuberculosis can be a promising vaccine against bubonic plague."

(T. Blisnick, P. Ave, M. Huerre, E. Carniel, C.E. Demeure. 2008. Oral vaccination against bubonic plague using a live avirulent Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain. Infection and Immunity, 76. 8: 3808-3816.)

Oral Administration of Lactobacillus from Breast Milk May Treat Common Infection in Lactating Mothers

Oral administration of lactobacillus strains found in breast milk may provide an alternative method to antibiotics for effectively treating mastitis, a common infection that occurs in lactating mothers say researchers from Spain. They report their findings in the August 2008 issue of the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology.

Mastitis, inflammation of one or more lobules of the mammary gland, occurs in anywhere from 3 to 33% of lactating mothers and of those incidences 75 to 95% are diagnosed within the first twelve weeks postpartum. While Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are considered to be the main infectious agents associated with mastitis, increased multi-drug resistance to antibiotics are making such infections difficult to treat, therefore prompting researchers to explore alternative treatment options.

In prior studies researchers collected lactobacillus strains from the breast milk of healthy mothers and found the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus salivarious to be comparable to strains currently used in commercial probiotic products. Here the researchers randomly divided twenty women diagnosed with staphylococcal mastitis into two groups, a probiotic group and a control. The probiotic group received the same daily dosage of L. salivarius and L. gasseri for four weeks, both of which were originally isolated from breast milk. Results showed that on day zero staphylococcal counts in both groups were similar. At day fourteen women in the probiotic group were displaying no clinical signs of mastitis, but infection in the control group persisted. Finally, on day thirty the staphylococcal count was lower in the probiotic group and L. salivarius and L. gasseri were detected in milk samples from six of the ten women.

"In conclusion, L. salivarius CECT5713 and L. gasseri CECT5714 appear to be an efficient alternative for the treatment of lactational infectious mastitis during lactation," say the researchers.

(E. Jimenez, L. Fernandez, A. Maldonado, R. Martin, M. Olivares, J. Xaus, J.M. Rodriguez. 2008. Oral administration of Lactobacillus strains isolated from breast milk as an alternative for the treatment of infectious mastitis during lactation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74. 15: 4650-4655.)


Contact: Carrie Slijepcevic
American Society for Microbiology

Related biology technology :

1. Three Expert Opinion Journals now Publishing Original Research
2. ScienceDirect to Host French-Language Journals from Elsevier Masson
3. Tips from the Journals of the American Society for Microbiology
4. Best Practices Document on Cryoablation Posted on Website of American Urological Association
5. Risky Business: New Survey Suggests Many Americans Live Dangerously, Even When They Say They Arent Risk Takers
6. PLC Systems Receives Delisting Notice From American Stock Exchange
7. Ondine Announces Presentation of Positive Clinical Trial Results at the American Academy of Periodontologys 94th Annual Meeting
8. American Oriental Bioengineering Announces Participation in September Investor Conferences
9. ESA Receives 2008 Frost & Sullivan North American Technology Innovation Award for Development of Integrated Metabolomics Systems
10. Preliminary Report of American Biotech Labs HIV Study Featured in Inaugural Issue of Journal of the Science of Healing Outcomes
11. Bacon Eating Contest Raises Money for American Heart Association
Post Your Comments:
(Date:11/24/2015)... 24, 2015 Halozyme Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ: HALO ) ... New York on Wednesday, December 2 at 9:30 ... president and CEO, will provide a corporate overview. th ... at 1:00 p.m. ET/10:00 a.m. PT . Jim ... provide a corporate overview. --> th Annual Oppenheimer ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... ... November 24, 2015 , ... Copper ... unless it is bound to proteins, copper is also toxic to cells. With ... Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) will conduct a systematic study of copper in the ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... , Nov. 24, 2015 /PRNewswire/ - Aeterna Zentaris Inc. ... IIROC on behalf of the Toronto Stock Exchange, confirms ... there are no corporate developments that would cause the ... --> --> About Aeterna Zentaris ... . --> Aeterna Zentaris is a specialty ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... November 24, 2015 --> ... research report "Oligonucleotide Synthesis Market by Product & Services ... Synthesis, Diagnostic, DNA, RNAi), End-User (Research, Pharmaceutical & Biotech, ... MarketsandMarkets, the market is expected to reach USD 1,918.6 ... at a CAGR of 10.1% during the forecast period. ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
(Date:11/17/2015)... PARIS , November 17, 2015 ... November 2015.   --> Paris from ... --> DERMALOG, the biometrics innovation leader, has invented the ... and fingerprints on the same scanning surface. Until now two ... fingerprints. Now one scanner can capture both on the same ...
(Date:11/12/2015)... -- A golden retriever that stayed healthy despite having the ... a new lead for treating this muscle-wasting disorder, report ... MIT and Harvard and the University of São Paolo ... Cell, pinpoints a protective gene that boosts muscle ... Boston Children,s lab of Lou Kunkel , PhD, ...
(Date:11/10/2015)... YORK , Nov. 10, 2015 ... to behavioral biometrics that helps to identify and ... fraud. Signature is considered as the secure and ... the identification of a particular individual because each ... more accurate results especially when dynamic signature of ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):