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Tiny structure gives big boost to solar power
Date:12/6/2012

r cell uses an incredibly fine metal mesh: the metal is 30 nanometers thick, and each hole is 175 nanometers in diameter and 25 nanometers apart. (A nanometer is a billionth of a meter and about one hundred-thousandth of human hair). This mesh replaces the conventional window layer typically made of a material called indium-tin-oxide (ITO).

The mesh window layer is placed very close to the bottom layer of the sandwich, the same metal film used in conventional solar cells. In between the two metal sheets is a thin strip of semiconducting material used in solar panels. It can be any type silicon, plastic or gallium arsenide although Chou's team used an 85-nanometer-thick plastic.

The solar cell's features the spacing of the mesh, the thickness of the sandwich, the diameter of the holes are all smaller than the wavelength of the light being collected. This is critical because light behaves in very unusual ways in sub-wavelength structures. Chou's team discovered that using these subwavelength structures allowed them to create a trap in which light enters, with almost no reflection, and does not leave.

"It is like a black hole for light," Chou said. "It traps it."

The team calls the system a "plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole array" or PlaCSH. Photos of the surface of the PlaCSH solar cells demonstrate this light-absorbing effect: under sunlight, a standard solar power cell looks tinted in color due to light reflecting from its surface, but the PlaCSH looks deep black because of the extremely low light reflection.

The researchers expected an increase in efficiency from the technique, "but clearly the increase we found was beyond our expectations," Chou said.

Chou and graduate student Wei Ding reported their findings in the j
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Contact: John Sullivan
js29@princeton.edu
609-258-4597
Princeton University, Engineering School
Source:Eurekalert  

Page: 1 2 3

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