Since surface is itself a defect, researchers asked to what degree the measured strength of a small-volume material reflects surface properties and surface-mediated processes, particularly when the sample size is in the range of tens of nanometers. Li and his team modeled tiny bits of gold and copper to investigate the probabilistic nature of surface dislocation nucleation. The study showed that the activation volume associated with surface dislocation nucleation is characteristically in the range of 110 times the atomic volume, much smaller than that of many conventional dislocation processes. Small activation volumes will lead to sensitive temperature and strain-rate dependence of the critical stress, providing an upper bound to the size-strength relation.
From this, the team predicted that the "smaller is stronger" trend will saturate at wire diameters 10-50 nanometers for most metals. For comparison, computers now contain microchips with 45 nanometer strained silicon features. Associated with this saturation in strength is a transition in the rate-controlling mechanism, from collective dislocation dynamics to single dislocation nucleation.
|Contact: Jordan Reese|
University of Pennsylvania