Nature has made DNA and RNA polymerases, capable of reading, transcribing and reverse transcribing normal nucleic acid sequences. For XNA molecules, however; no naturally occurring polymerases exist. So the group, led by Phil Holliger at the MRC in England, painstakingly evolved synthetic polymerases that could copy DNA into XNA and other polymerases that could copy XNA back into DNA. In the end, polymerases were discovered that transcribe and reverse-transcribe six different genetic systems: HNA, CeNA, LNA, ANA, FANA and TNA. The experiments demonstrated that these unnatural DNA sequences could be rendered into various XNAs when the polymerases were fed the appropriate XNA substrates.
Using these enzymes as tools for molecular evolution, the team evolved the first example of an HNA aptamer through iterative rounds of selection and amplification. Starting from a large pool of DNA sequences, a synthetic polymerase was used to copy the DNA library into HNA. The pool of HNA molecules was then incubated with an arbitrary target. The small fraction of molecules that bound the target were separated from the unbound pool, reverse transcribed back into DNA with a second synthetic enzyme and amplified by PCR. After many repeated rounds, HNAs were generated that bound HIV trans-activating response RNA (TAR) and hen egg lysosome (HEL), which were used as binding targets.) "This is a synthetic Darwinian process," Chaput says. "The same thing happens inside our cells, but this is done in vitro."
The method for producing XNA polymerases draws on the path-breaking work of Holliger, one of the lead authors of the current study. The elegant technique uses cell-like synthetic compar
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Arizona State University