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Single-step technique produces both p-type and n-type doping for future graphene devices

g doses of electron-beam radiation and then studied how it influenced the properties of carriers in the graphene lattice," Murali said. "The e-beam gave us a fine range of control that could be valuable for fabricating nanoscale devices. We can use an electron beam with a diameter of four or five nanometers that allows very precise doping patterns."

Electronic measurements showed that a graphene p-n junction created by the new technique had large energy separations, indicating strong doping effects, he added.

Researchers elsewhere have demonstrated graphene doping using a variety of processes including soaking the material in various solutions and exposing it to a variety of gases. The Georgia Tech process is believed to be the first to provide both electron and hole doping from a single dopant material.

Doping processes used for graphene are likely to be significantly different from those established for silicon use, Murali said. In silicon, the doping step substitutes atoms of a different material for silicon atoms in the material's lattice.

In the new single-step process for graphene, the doping is believed to introduce atoms of hydrogen and oxygen in the vicinity of the carbon lattice. The oxygen and hydrogen don't replace carbon atoms, but instead occupy locations atop the lattice structure.

"Energy applied to the SOG breaks chemical bonds and releases hydrogen and oxygen which bond with the carbon lattice," Murali said. "A high e-beam energy converts the whole SOG structure to more of a network, and then you have more oxygen than hydrogen, resulting in a p-type doping."

In volume manufacturing, the electron beam radiation would likely be replaced by a conventional lithography process, Murali said. Varying the reflectance or transmission of the mask set would control the amount of radiation reaching the SOG, and that would determine whether n-type or p-type areas are created.

"Making ev

Contact: John Toon
Georgia Institute of Technology Research News

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Single-step technique produces both p-type and n-type doping for future graphene devices
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