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Reportlinker Adds Biomarkers - Technologies, Markets and Companies

NEW YORK, June 3 /PRNewswire/ -- announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Biomarkers - technologies, markets and companies


This report follows the broad definition of a biomarker as a characteristic that can be objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological or pathogenic processes as well as pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. Tests based on biomarkers have been around for more than half a century, but interest in their application for diagnostics and drug discovery as well as development has increased remarkably since the beginning of the 21st century. This report describes different types of biomarkers and their discovery using various "-omics" technologies such as proteomics and metabolomics. Molecular diagnostics technologies are used for the discovery of biomarkers and new tests are also based on biomarker.

Currently the most important applications of biomarkers are in drug discovery and development. The role of biomarkers in various therapeutic areas particularly cancer, cardiovascular diseases and disorders of the central nervous system, is described. Biomarkers are useful not only for diagnosis of some of these diseases but also for understanding the pathomechanism as well as a basis for development of therapeutics.

Biomarkers will facilitate the combination of therapeutics with diagnostics and will thus play an important role in the development of personalized medicine. Biomarkers play a role in use of pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics and pharmacoproteomics for development of personalized medicine.

Many of the regulatory issues concerning biomarkers are related to genomics, proteomics, molecular diagnostics and pharmacogenomics/pharmacogenetics. Validation of biomarkers and their role in clinical trials is discussed.

Biomarker markets are estimated from 2009 to 2019 according to share of markets for various technologies and applications: proteomics, metabolomics, molecular diagnostics, drug discovery, clinical trials, and bioinformatics. Market values are further split according to therapeutic applications and major geographical areas. Unfulfilled needs in biomarkers are identified as well as the drivers for biomarker markets. Challenges facing the biomarker industry and strategies for developing biomarker markets are discussed.

A large number of companies with varying technical backgrounds are involved in biomarkers and 260 of these are profiled in part 2 of the report with classification into various categories. These also include major pharmaceutical companies. There is tabulation of 464 collaborations between companies and additional academic collaborations are mentioned in the individual profiles of companies. The report is supplemented by 800 references, 62 tables and 12 figures


0. Executive Summary 17

1. Introduction to Virology 19

Introduction 19

Virus databases 19

A practical classification of viruses 19

Pathomechanism of viral diseases relevant to therapy 20

Intrinsic host defense against retroviruses 21

Life cycle of virus as basis for antiviral approaches 22

Genetic switch in virus infections 22

Viral-induced cancer 23

Prophylaxis versus therapy 24

Economic impact of viral diseases 24

Historical landmarks in the development of antiviral therapies 24

2. Antiviral Approaches 27

Classification 27

Antiviral drug discovery and development 27

Viral versus cellular targets for antiviral therapy 27

Antimicrobial peptides 29

Immunological approaches 29

Basics of immune regulation in relation to viruses 29

Effect of viruses on the immune system 30

Latent viral infections and the immune system 30

Immunomodulating agents 31

Amplification of innate immunity 31

Enhancers of immune system 31

Promoting immune-mediated clearance of a chronic viral infections 31

Immunoglobulins 32

Bovine lactoferrin 32

Quercetin 32

Monoclonal antibodies 33

Bavituximab 34

Treatment of viral infection with radiolabeled MAbs 34

Limitations of MAbs and measures to overcome these 35

Interferon-based approaches 35

Novel antiviral approaches 35

Synthetic modified hypericin compounds 35

Targeting Toll-like receptors 36

Potential and drawbacks of TLR-ligands in viral diseases 37

Inhibition of viral transport from cytoplasm into the cell nucleus 37

Nitric Oxide based antiviral therapeutics 37

Gene therapy for viral infections 38

Antisense approaches to viral infections 38

Antisense oligonucleotides 38

Limitations of antisense oligonucleotides as antivirals 39

NEUGENE antisense 39

RNAi screens of viral genomes 40

RNAi for treatment of viral infections 40

Promise and pitfalls of RNAi gene therapy 42

Management of rapidly evolving pathogens 42

Personalized medicine and viral diseases 43

An integrated approach to viral diseases 43

Current problems and needs in antiviral therapy 43

3. Vaccines for Virus Infections 45

Introduction 45

Types of vaccines 46

Live attenuated virus vaccines 46

DNA vaccines 46

Nanotechnology-based vaccines 47

Recombinant viral vaccines 48

Synthetic peptides as vaccines 48

Virosomes 49

Vaccines based on reverse genetics 49

Virus-like particles 49

Routine vaccination in children against viral infections 50

Personalized vaccines 50

Limitations of vaccines 50

Neurological complications of vaccination 51

Expert opinion on antiviral vaccines 51

4. Role of Nanotechnology in Developing Antiviral Agents 53

Introduction 53

Study of interaction of nanoparticles with viruses 53

Nanoparticle antiviral agents 54

Fullerenes 54

Nanoviricides 54

Role of micelles in nanopharmaceuticals 55

Some physicochemical characteristics common to polymeric micelles 55

Structure and function of nanoviricides 56

Mechanism of action of NanoViricides 56

Advantages of NanoViricides 57

5. Delivery of Antivirals 59

Introduction 59

Methods of delivery of antiviral agents 59

Local application of antivirals 59

Systemic delivery of protein-polymer antiviral drugs 60

Controlled delivery of antivirals 60

Targeted delivery of antivirals 60

Delivery of antivirals to the brain across the blood-brain barrier 61

Antiviral vaccine delivery systems 61

Minicell vaccine delivery 61

Transnasal delivery of vaccines by Newcastle disease virus as vector 61

Transdermal delivery of vaccines 62

Transdermal vaccines for influenza 62

HIV/AIDS vaccination by topical application 62

CELLECTRA® electroporation device 63

Intramuscular electroporation for delivery of DNA vaccine 63

Use of nanotechnology for improving delivery of antivirals 63

Macrophage-based nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy 64

Improvement of antiviral vaccine delivery by nanotechnology 65

Bacterial spores for delivery of vaccines 65

Liposomal antiviral vaccine preparations 65

Nanoparticles for DNA vaccines 65

Chitosan-derived nanoparticles for vaccine delivery 66

Proteosomes™ as vaccine delivery vehicles 66

Polymeric micellae for delivery of DNA vaccine 66

"Smart" nanoparticles for delivery of vaccines 66

Nanospheres for controlled release of viral antigens 67

Nanocoating for local viricidal effect 67

Delivery of gene-based antiviral drugs 67

Limitations of delivery of gene, RNAi and antisense therapies 68

Systemic delivery of NanoViricides 68

Concluding remarks on delivery of antiviral agents 68

6. Competitive Assessment of Antiviral Approaches 69

Introduction 69

An ideal antiviral agent 69

SWOT analysis 69

Concluding remarks 72

7. Influenza Viruses 73

Introduction 73

Clincal features of influenza 73

Colds due to rhinovirus 73

Effects of influenza on the respiratory system 73

Effect of avian influenza on the nervous system 74

Epidemiology 74

Supermap of avian influenza 74

Influenza A 74

Avian influenza affecting humans 75

Human influenza versus avian influenza 75

H1N1 influenza 77

Immune system and influenza 78

Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resources 78

Anti-influenza approaches 78

Pharmaceuticals 79

Neuraminidase inhibitors 79

Mechanism of action 79

Tamiflu 80

Zanamivir 80

CS-8958 80

Peramivir 80

Resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors 81

Adverse effects of neuraminidase inhibitors 82

Other drugs for influenza 82

Adamantanes 82

Probenecid 83

Current recommendations for the use of antiviral agents for influenza 83

Vaccines 83

Live attenuated influenza vaccine vs. inactivated vaccine 84

Vaccines for H1N1 influenza 84

Vaccines in development 85

Cell culture-derived influenza vaccines 85

DNA vaccines for avian influenza 86

Epitope-based vaccines for influenza 86

Gene-based vaccines for influenza 87

MAbs for passive immunization against avian influenza 87

M2e-based human influenza A vaccine. 87

MF-59 as adjuvant for influenza vaccine 88

Pre-pandemic split antigen H5N1 vaccine 88

Recombinant hemagglutinin influenza vaccine 89

Synthetic avian influenza vaccine 89

Virus-like particles as influenza vaccines 90

Current status of influenza vaccines and limitations 91

Current recommendations for influenza vaccination 91

Limitations of current influenza vaccines 91

Needs of influenza vaccines 92

Problems with demand and supply of influenza vaccines 93

Problems with access to virus samples 93

FluVac project for development of pandemic influenza vaccine 94

Influenza vaccines for multiple strains of the disease 94

Current status of vaccine preparedness against seasonal influenza 94

Current status of vaccine preparedness against H5N1 95

RNAi-based approaches 95

Inhibition of influenza virus by siRNAs 95

Limitations of RNAi approach to influenza 96

Challenges and future prospects of siRNAs for influenza 96

Antisense approaches 97

NEUGENE® antisense for inhibition of multiple strains of influenza A 97

Nanoviricides against influenza 97

Other innovative approaches 98

Abatacept 98

Polymeric coatings to inactivate influenza virus 98

Cytotoxic therapy 98

Cyanovirin 99

Fludase 99

Multiferon® 99

Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate 100

T-705 100

Value of antivirals in preventing spread of influenza after exposure 100

Resistance to influenza therapy and efforts to overcome it 100

NIAID Centers of Excellence for research on pandemic influenza viruses 101

Research on influenza viruses at Bayer 101

Concluding remarks and future prospects 102

8. AIDS/HIV 103

Introduction 103

Epidemiology 103

Current concepts of pathomechanisms 103

Decoding the structure of an entire HIV genome 104

Pathogenesis of AIDS 104

Host-pathogen interactions that regulate HIV-1 replication 105

Visualization of the interaction of HIV-1 proteins with target cells 105

Genentic basis of resistance against HIV 106

Complications of AIDS 106

AIDS and the nervous system 106

Opportunistic infections in AIDS 107

Coexistent HIV-1 and HSV-2 107

Coexistent hepatitis virus infections with HIV 108

HIV and HBV 108

HIV and HCV 108

AIDS wasting syndrome 109

Current therapies 109

Aim of anti-HIV drugs 111

Efavirenz 111

Tipranavir 112

Enfuvirtide 112

Darunavir 112

Impact of antiretroviral treatment on transmission of HIV 113

Postexposure prophylaxis against HIV 114

Limitations of current therapies 114

Adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy 114

Drug resistance in AIDS 115

Effect of interruption of HIV treatment 116

Reservoirs of HIV Infection 116

Persistance of low-level viremia in HIV-1 patients on retroviral therapy 116

Reconsideration of abandoned therapies for AIDS 116

Therapies in development 117

Drugs in development for HIV/AIDS 117

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors 118

Apricitabine 118

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors 118

Etravirine 118

IDX899 118

Novel protease inhibitors 119

Overcoming HIV-1 resistance to PIs 119

PPL-100 120

Entry inhibitors targeting CCR5 receptor 120

Maraviroc 121

SP-01A 121

MAbs targeting CCR5 receptor 121

PRO 140 122

Ibalizumab 122

Integrase inhibitors 123

Raltegravir (Isentress) 123

Elvitegravir (GS 9137) 124

Design of fusion inhibitor peptides against enfuvirtide-resistant HIV-1 124

Maturation inhibitors 124

Blocking of pre-integration complex translocation 125

Immune enhancers 125

Pyrimidinediones 126

Novel combinations of drugs for prevention of AIDS 126

Truvada 126

Combination of raltegravir, enfuvirtide, and darunavir 126

Other innovative antiviral approaches against HIV/AIDS 127

Enhancing immune response by blockade of PD-1 receptor 127

IL-2 as adjunct to antiretroviral therapy 127

A filtration device for HIV-1 as an adjunct to the immune system 127

In vitro evaluation of antiviral drug activity 128

Methods for sustaining antiviral activity 128

Selective targeting of ITK to block multiple steps of HIV replication 128

Drugs from natural sources 129

Anti-HIV activity of drugs that stimulate cholesterol efflux 129

Blocking of HIV budding by DC-SIGN protein 129

ATR kinase as a target for anti-HIV drug discovery 130

Nanoviricides for HIV/AIDS 130

Prophylactic measures to prevent HIV infection 131

Microbicidal agents for local application in HIV/AIDS 131

Currently investigated microbicidals against HIV and their limitations 131

CCR5 receptor blockers 132

PSC-Rantes and recombinant chemokine analogs 133

HIV-1 entry inhibitor griffithsin as a topical microbicide 133

Next generation microbicides for HIV 133

Intracellular immunization in HIV 134

Engineered cellular proteins such as soluble CD4s 134

Intracellular antibodies 134

Selection of T-cell vaccine antigens 134

Glycoprotein 120 as target for neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies 135

Anti-rev single chain antibody fragment 135

Gene therapy strategies in HIV/AIDS 135

Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by lentiviral vectors 136

VRX496 (Lexgenleucel-T) 136

Insertion of protective genes into target cells. 136

Use of genes to chemosensitize HIV-1 infected cells 137

Autocrine interferon-? production by somatic cell gene therapy 137

HIV/AIDS vaccines 137

Cell-based vaccines for HIV 138

Gene transfer for HIV vaccination 138

Delivery of HIV vaccine by an adenoviral vector 139

Vaccination after discontinuation of antiretroviral treatment 139

Recombinant HIV proteins 140

DNA vaccines for HIV/AIDS 140

Epitope-based DNA vaccines against HIV 141

Limitations and needs of HIV vaccines 141

Innovations in HIV/AIDS vaccine 142

Attenuated rabies virus-based vaccine for HIV 142

Combination of a prime vaccine and booster vaccine 142

Dendritic cell-based vaccine for HIV 142

MVA nef vaccine 143

Peptide-based vaccine for HIV 143

Personalized vaccine for HIV 143

Transdermal nanoparticles for immune enhancement in HIV 144

Vaccine to prevent HIV entry at the mucosal level 144

Cell therapy for HIV/AIDS 144

hESCs converted to T-cells for treatment of HIV infection 145

Transplantation of genetically modified hematopoietic cells 145

Transplantation of genetically modified T cells 145

Overlapping Peptide-pulsed Autologous Cells 146

Antisense approaches to AIDS 146

Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides 146

Antisense efforts with PNA constructs 146

RNA decoys 147

Ribozymes 147

RNAi applications in HIV/AIDS 148

A multiple shRNA approach for silencing of HIV-1 148

Aptamer-mediated delivery of anti-HIV siRNAs 149

Bispecific siRNA constructs 149

Role of the nef gene during HIV-1 infection and RNAi 149

siRNA-directed inhibition of HIV-1 infection 150

Synergistic effect of snRNA and siRNA 151

Targeting CXCR4 with siRNAs 151

Targeting CCR5 with siRNAs 151

Concluding remarks on RNAi approach to HIV/AIDS 152

Companies involved in developing gene therapy for HIV/AIDS 152

Conclusions regarding gene therapy of HIV/AIDS 153

Testing for new anti-HIV therapies 153

Personalized approach to management of HIV 154

Differences in response of the body to HIV 154

Variations in action of drugs on HIV 154

Drug-resistance in HIV 154

Replication Capacity measurement 155

Role of biomarkers in management of HIV/AIDS 155

Prevention of adverse reactions to antiviral drugs 156

Nanoviricides as a personalized approach to HIV 156

Concluding remarks and future prospects 156

9. Hepatitis Viruses 159

Introduction 159

Hepatitis A virus infection 159

Hepatitis E virus infection 159

Epidemiology 159

Structure of the HEV 160

HEV vaccines 160

Epidemiology of HBV 160

Pathogenesis of HBV-induced liver disease 160

Current approaches to management of HBV 161

Entecavir 162

Adefovir dipivoxil 162

Telbivudine 162

Pegylated interferon-alpha 163

Limitations of current therapies and needs of HBV 163

Innovations in the management of HBV 163

Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 164

Hepatitis B immune globulins 164

Nabi-HB 164

HepaGam B 164

Hepatitis B vaccine composed in a novel nanoemulsion adjuvant 165

Innovative pharmaceuticals for HBV 165

Clevudine 165

HepDirect prodrugs 166

Monoclonal antibodies for HBV 166

RNAi-based therapy of HBV 166

Personalized treatment of hepatitis B 167

Future prospects of management of hepatitis B 167

Epidemiology of HCV 167

HCV characteristics 168

Pathomechanism of HCV infection 168

Mechanism of HCV entry 168

HCV and the immune system 169

Mechanism of HCV replication and response to interferon 169

Current approaches to management of HCV 169

Interferon therapy for HCV 169

Limitations of current HCV therapies 170

Novel approaches to HCV 170

HCV protease inhibitors 171

Narlaprevir (SCH 900518) 171

Telaprevir (VX-950) 171

Small molecule HCV protease inhibitors 172

Innovations in interferon therapy for HCV 172

Omega DUROS 172

GEA007.1 173

Directed evolution of gene-shuffled IFN-? for treatment of HCV 173

PEG-IFN-? 174

Personalizing interferon therapy of HCV 174

Innovative ribavirin-based treatments 174

Targeted delivery of hemoglobin-ribavirin conjugate for HCV 174

Taribavirin 174

Nucleoside polymerase inhibitor 175

Valopicitabine 175

Host cell targets for hepatitis C therapy 175

SP-10 176

NS5a inhibitors 176

Compounds targeting HCV receptor E2 176

Cyclophilin inhibitors 177

Alisporivir 177

Methylene blue 177

Naringenin 178

Nitazoxanide 178

Cyclosporine and analogues as anti-HCV agents 178

Clemizole and HCV 179

RNAi-based approaches to HCV 179

Use of adenoviral vectors for RNAi 180

siRNAs for HCV 180

Limitations and drawbacks of siRNA therapy for HCV 181

Role of miRNA in viral infections 181

miR-122 antagonists 181

Therapeutic vaccine for HCV 182

Clinical trials of HCV therapeutics 182

Limitations to the development of effective anti-HCV therapeutics 183

Causes of treatment failure in chronic hepatitis C 183

HCV drug resistance 183

Personalized management of HCV infection 183

Future needs in HCV therapy 184

Summary and concluding remarks 185

10. Miscellaneous Commercially Important Virus Infections 187

Introduction 187

Herpes viruses 187

Herpes simplex virus 187

Treatment of HSV-1 187

Acyclovir 187

Vaccine for HSV 188

Antisense therapy for HSV-1 188

Herpes simplex virus 2 and genital herpes 188

Famciclovir 189

Intravaginal microbicidal agents for HSV-2 189

Vaccine for HSV-2 189

Herpes simplex keratitis 190

Herpes simplex encephalitis 190

Limitations of current HSV therapies 191

Herpes zoster virus 191

Herpes zoster and chicken pox 191

Epidemiology of herpes zoster 191

Treatment of herpes zoster 191

Herpes zoster vaccine 192

Cytomegalovirus 192

Valganciclovir hydrochloride 192

T-cell therapy for CMV 193

Vaccine for CMV 193

Gene therapy of CMV 193

Antisense approach to CMV 194

siRNA treatment of CMV 194

Epstein-Barr virus 194

Human papilloma virus 195

Epidemiology 195

Vaccines for HPV 195

Gardasil 195

Cervarix 196

Vaccine based on fusion proteins of HPV envelope 196

DNA vaccine VGX-3100 197

Limitations of HPV vaccines 197

Antivirals for HPV 198

Imiquimod 198

Novel approaches against HPV 198

Intrabody strategies for the treatment of HPV 198

A novel peptide to inhibit HPV 198

Heat shock protein-based antivirals 199

Respiratory syncytial virus 199

Epidemiology 199

Current management of RSV 200

Palivizumab 200

Innovative anti-RSV products in development 200

RSV604 200

RNAi approach to RSV 200

Vaccines for RSV 201

BCG as a vaccine against RSV 201

Oral DNA vaccine for RSV 201

Other respiratory viruses 201

Parainfluenzavirus type 3 202

Human metapneumovirus 202

Gastrointestinal viruses 202

Noroviruses 203

Concluding remarks 203

11. Viruses with High Impact but Low Commercial Significance 205

Introduction 205

Chikungunya fever 205

Coxsackie virus 205

Japanese encephalitis 206

Vaccines for JE 206

Parvovirus 206

Rabies 207

Rabies vaccines 207

Recombinant viral vaccines for rabies 208

DNA vaccine against rabies 208

Rabies immune globulin 208

Monoclonal antibodies for rabies 208

NanoViricides approach for rabies 209

The Milwaukee protocol for rabies 209

Rotavirus 210

Epidemiology 210

Vaccine against rotavirus 210

Viral hemorrhagic fevers 211

Dengue 211

Antivirals in development 212

Dengue vaccines 213

Ebola virus 213

DNA vaccine for Ebola 214

Lassa fever 214

Marburg hemorrhagic fever 215

Yellow fever 215

Sequencing of Aedes aegypti genome and control of yellow fever 216

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever 216

West Nile virus 217

Epidemiology 217

Treatment of West Nile neuroinvasive disease 217

Vaccines against WNV 217

Innovative treatments for WNV 218

Western equine encephalitis 218

Sporadic virus epidemics 218

Coronavirus/severe acute respiratory syndrome 218

Therapeutic approaches to SARS 219

MAbs for SARS 219

siRNA treatment of SARS 220

Zoonotic viral infections 220

Vaccines for zoonotic viral diseases 220

Virus bioterrorism and biowarfare 221

Small pox as a biological weapon 221

Status of small pox vaccination 221

Strategies against virus bioterrorism and biowarfare 222

Increasing resistance by stimulating innate immune mechanisms 222

Nanoviricides for combating viral bioterrorism 223

Concluding remarks 223

12. Markets for Antivirals 225

Introduction 225

Markets according to disease 225

Influenza market 225

HIV/AIDS market 226

Hepatitis B and C markets 227

Markets according to products and approaches 227

Market values of monoclonal antibodies for viral diseases 227

Market values of vaccines for viral diseases 227

Markets for vaccines against HPV 228

Markets for other antiviral vaccines 228

Markets according to geographical areas 229

Geographical distribution of HIV/AIDS market 229

Unmet needs in antivirals 229

Policies regarding conquered viral diseases 230

Future of polio vaccine 230

Policies concerning HPV vaccine for prevention of cervical cancer 231

HPV vaccine in developing countries 231

Future prospects of innovative approaches 232

US Government support of antiviral efforts 233

US Government support for R & D in avian influenza vaccines 233

US Government support for developing anti-bioterrorism agents 233

The European Union support of antiviral research 234

European Commission's research support for anti-HIV/AIDS programs 234

European Commission's support anti-influenza programs 235

Collaboration of biotechnology companies with big pharma 236

Strategies for marketing 236

13. Companies 237

Introduction 237

Top companies 237

Profiles of pharmaceutical companies 238

Profiles of antiviral companies 254

Profiles of viral vaccine companies 365

Collaborations 429

14. References 434

Table 1 1: A practical classification of viruses 19

Table 1 2: Vaccines vs therapeutics for viral diseases 24

Table 1 3: Historical landmarks in the development of antiviral therapies 25

Table 2 1: Classification of antiviral strategies 27

Table 2 2: Viral vs cellular targets for discovery of antivirals 28

Table 2 3: Viruses amenable to antisense oligonucleotides 39

Table 2 4: Inhibition of viral replication by RNAi 42

Table 3 1: Types of vaccines for viral diseases 46

Table 4 1: Role of nanobiotechnology in virology 53

Table 5 1: Methods of delivery of antiviral agents 59

Table 5 2: Role of nanotechnology for improving delivery of antivirals 64

Table 5 3: Commercially available liposomal antiviral vaccines 65

Table 6 1: SWOT of monoclonal antibodies 69

Table 6 2: SWOT of agents that prevention viral entry into cells 70

Table 6 3: SWOT of drugs interfering with intracellular replication 70

Table 6 4: SWOT of protease inhibitors 70

Table 6 5: SWOT of integrase inhibitors 70

Table 6 6: SWOT of maturation inhibitors 70

Table 6 7: SWOT of neuraminidase inhibitors 71

Table 6 8: SWOT of targeting Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 71

Table 6 9: SWOT of topical antivirals agents against viral infections 71

Table 6 10: SWOT of gene therapy, antisense oligonucleotides, RNAi 71

Table 6 11: SWOT of vaccines 71

Table 6 12: SWOT of NanoViricides 72

Table 7 1: Anti-influenza approaches 79

Table 7 2: Antiviral drugs used for influenza 79

Table 8 1: Drugs in clinical development for HIV/AIDS 117

Table 8 2: Strategies for gene therapy of AIDS 135

Table 8 3: Classification of HIV/AIDS vaccines in clinical trials 137

Table 8 4: Companies involved in developing gene therapy for HIV/AIDS 152

Table 9 1: Innovations in the treatment of HBV 163

Table 9 2: Innovations for management of HCV 171

Table 9 3: Antiviral agents for HCV targeting host cells 175

Table 9 4: HCV drugs in clinical trials 182

Table 10 1: Methods of delivery of acyclovir 187

Table 11 1: Strategies against virus bioterrorism and biowarfare 222

Table 12 1: Worldwide market for all antiviral approaches 2009-2019 225

Table 12 2: Markets for antivirals according to virus infections 2009-2019 225

Table 12 3: Markets values of all drugs for HIV/AIDS 2009-2019 226

Table 12 4: Market values of monoclonal antibodies for viral diseases 2009-2019 227

Table 12 5: Market values of vaccines for viral diseases 2009-2019 228

Table 12 6: Markets for antivirals according to geographical areas 2009-2019 229

Table 12 7: Markets for vaccines according to geographical areas 2009-2019 229

Table 13 1: Top five antiviral companies 237

Table 13 2: Roche antiviral products in development 244

Table 13 3: Collaborations of antiviral companies 430

Figure 1 1: Varieties of host and cell responses to viral infections 21

Figure 1 2: Cycle of infection and replication of a retrovirus 22

Figure 1 3: Viral-induced cancer 23

Figure 2 1: An integrated approach to viral diseases 43

Figure 4 1: Schematic representation of NanoViricide attacking a virus particle 57

Figure 7 1: Evolution of mutations associated with virulence/drug resistance in H5N1 76

Figure 7 2: Mechanism of development of resistance to oseltamivir 82

Figure 8 1: Mode of action of some current anti-HIV drugs 110

Figure 9 1: Steps of HBV replication and site of action of various drugs 161

Figure 9 2: Omega DUROS device for interferon delivery in chronic hepatitis C 172

Figure 12 1: Unmet needs in antivirals 230

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