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Reportlinker Adds Biomarkers - Technologies, Markets And Companies
Date:11/9/2010

NEW YORK, Nov. 9, 2010 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Biomarkers - technologies,markets and companies

http://www.reportlinker.com/p0203536/Biomarkers---technologiesmarkets-and-companies.html

Summary

This report follows the broad definition of a biomarker as a characteristic that can be objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological or pathogenic processes as well as pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. Tests based on biomarkers have been around for more than half a century, but interest in their application for diagnostics and drug discovery as well as development has increased remarkably since the beginning of the 21st century. This report describes different types of biomarkers and their discovery using various "-omics" technologies such as proteomics and metabolomics. Molecular diagnostics technologies are used for the discovery of biomarkers and new tests are also based on biomarker.

Currently the most important applications of biomarkers are in drug discovery and development. The role of biomarkers in various therapeutic areas particularly cancer, cardiovascular diseases and disorders of the central nervous system, is described. Biomarkers are useful not only for diagnosis of some of these diseases but also for understanding the pathomechanism as well as a basis for development of therapeutics.

Biomarkers will facilitate the combination of therapeutics with diagnostics and will thus play an important role in the development of personalized medicine. Biomarkers play a role in use of pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics and pharmacoproteomics for development of personalized medicine.

Many of the regulatory issues concerning biomarkers are related to genomics, proteomics, molecular diagnostics and pharmacogenomics/pharmacogenetics. Validation of biomarkers and their role in clinical trials is discussed.

Biomarker markets are estimated from 2009 to 2019 according to share of markets for various technologies and applications: proteomics, metabolomics, molecular diagnostics, drug discovery, clinical trials, and bioinformatics. Market values are further split according to therapeutic applications and major geographical areas. Unfulfilled needs in biomarkers are identified as well as the drivers for biomarker markets. Challenges facing the biomarker industry and strategies for developing biomarker markets are discussed.

A large number of companies with varying technical backgrounds are involved in biomarkers and 267 of these are profiled in part 2 of the report with classification into various categories. These also include major pharmaceutical companies. There is tabulation of 481 collaborations between companies and additional academic collaborations are mentioned in the individual profiles of companies. The report is supplemented by 800 references, 62 tables and 12 figures

TABLE OF CONTENTS

0. Executive Summary 20

1. Introduction .. 22

Definitions . 22

Historical aspects of biomarkers . 22

Classification of biomarkers .. 23

Biological marker as response to therapeutic intervention .. 24

Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics biomarkers .. 24

Predictive biomarkers . 24

Valid biomarkers .. 25

Types of biomarkers . 25

Genes as biomarkers .. 25

Proteins as biomarkers .. 26

Proteomics .. 26

DNA biomarkers .. 27

Mitochondrial DNA .. 27

Mitochondrial mutations .. 27

RNA biomarkers 27

Transcriptomics . 28

MicroRNAs .. 29

Metabolomics 29

Glycomics .. 29

Single nucleotide polymorphisms 30

Haplotyping . 30

Cell biomarkers of disease 31

Stem cell biomarkers .. 31

Association of stem cell biomarkers with disease . 31

Cancer stem cell biomarkers.. 31

Endoglin as a functional biomarker of stem cells . 32

p75NTR as a biomarker to isolate adipose tissue-derived stem cells . 32

Protein expression profile as biomarker of stem cells . 32

STEMPRO? EZChek? for analysis of biomarkers of hESCs 33

SSEA-4 as biomarker of MSCs .. 33

Gaseous mediators as biomarkers of disease .. 33

Autoantibodies as biomarkers of autoimmune diseases 33

Comparison of various types of biomarkers . 34

Biomarkers and systems biology 34

Systems biology approach to biomarker identification .. 36

Relation of biomarkers to other technologies and healthcare .. 36

Biomarkers and translational medicine.. 37

Limitations of use of biomarkers in healthcare 37

2. Technologies for Discovery of Biomarkers .. 40

Introduction . 40

The ideal biomarker 40

Genomic technologies .. 40

Gene expression .. 40

Whole genome expression array .. 41

Gene expression profiling on whole blood samples . 42

Profiling gene expression patterns of white blood cells .. 42

Tissue microarrays for study of biomarkers . 42

Epigenomic technologies 43

Discovery of methylation biomarkers . 43

Proteomic technologies .. 44

2D GE . 45

Biomarker Amplification Filter .. 46

CellCarta® proteomics platform .. 46

Isotope-coded affinity tags 47

Liquid chromatography-MS/MS 47

Lucid Proteomics System .. 47

Magnetics beads for protein biomarker discovery .. 48

MASStermind™ . 48

Mass spectrometry .. 48

2D PAGE and mass spectrometry . 49

Imaging mass spectrometry .. 49

MALDI mass spectrometry for biomarker discovery 50

Quantitative tandem MS . 51 - 4 -

Single-molecule mass spectrometry using a nanopore .. 51

Requirements for MS-based proteomic biomarker development . 52

Protein tomography . 52

Protein biochips/microarrays and biomarkers . 52

Antibody-based biomarker discovery .. 53

Detection of biomarkers using peptide array technology .. 53

Protein nanobiochip .. 53

Gene expression microarray data as a source of protein biomarkers 54

Quantification of protein biomarkers .. 54

Mass spectrometry for quantification of protein biomarkers . 54

Real-time PCR for quantification of protein biomarkers . 54

CyTOF for quantification of biomarkers .. 55

Search for biomarkers in body fluids . 55

Challenges and strategies for discovey of protein biomarkers in plasma . 55

3-D structure of CD38 as a biomarker 56

BD™ Free Flow Electrophoresis System . 57

Isotope tags for relative and absolute quantification .. 57

Plasma protein microparticles as biomarkers 58

Proteome partitioning .. 58

Stable isotope tagging methods 58

Technology to measure both the identity and size of the biomarker .. 59

Biomarkers in the urinary proteome .. 59

Peptides in body fluids and tissues as biomarkers of disease . 60

Analysis of peptides in bodily fluids . 60

Serum peptidome patterns . 61

SISCAPA method for quantitating proteins and peptides in plasma 61

Comparison of proteomic profiling technologies for discovery of biomarkers . 62

Verification for interlaboratory reproducibility of protein biomarkers 62

Significance of similar protein biomarkers in different tissues 63

Glycomic technologies . 63

Metabolomic technologies . 64

Genome-wide association studies for identification of metabolic biomarkers . 64

Lipid profiling 64

Mass spectrometry-based kits for discovery of metabolic biomarkers in plasma .. 65

Role of metabolomics in biomarker identification and pattern recognition .. 65

Urinary profiling by capillary electrophoresis 65

Validation of biomarkers in large-scale human metabolomics studies .. 66

Lipidomics . 66

Disease biomarkers in breath .. 67

Portable breath test for volatile organic compounds . 67

Detection of breath biomarkers by sensation technology . 68

Detection of breath biomarkers optical frequency comb spectroscopy . 68

Fluorescent indicators for biomarkers . 68

Molecular imaging technologies .. 69

Computer tomography 69

Magnetic resonance imaging 69

Positron emission tomography . 70

Advantages of imaging biomarkers . 70

Monitoring in vivo gene expression by molecular imaging .. 70

Molecular imaging in vivo as a biomarker . 71

Challenges and future prospects of molecular imaging . 71

Basic research in molecular imaging 72

Imaging intracellular NADH as a biomarker of disease .. 72

Devices for molecular imaging .. 72

Imaging biomarkers in clinical trials 72

Molecular imaging in clinical practice .. 73

Nuclear magnetic resonance . 73

Chemical derivatization to enhance biomarker detection by NMR . 73

Fluxomics by using NMR 74

Nanobiotechnology 74

Nanomaterials for biolabeling .. 74

Quantum dot molecular labels .. 75

Bioconjugated QDs for multiplexed profiling of biomarkers .. 76

Magnetic nanotags for multipley detection of biomarkers . 76

Nanoproteomics and biomarkers . 76

High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility mass spectrometry .. 77

Nanoparticles for molecular imaging .. 77

Nanoparticles for discovering biomarkers . 77

Nanosensors for measuring biomarkers in blood 78

Nanobiochip sensor technique for analysis of oral cancer biomarkers .. 78

Nucleoprotein nanodevices for detection of cancer biomarkers .. 78 - 5 -

Future prospects of application of nanobiotechnology for biomarkers .. 79

Bioinformatics . 79

Biomarker Workflow Guide 79

Analysis of microarray data for selecting useful biomarkers 80

Role of bioinformatics in discovery of protein biomarkers 80

Role of bioinformatics in detection of cancer biomarkers . 81

Biomarker databases .. 81

Gene networks as biomarkers .. 81

3. Biomarkers and Molecular Diagnostics . 84

Introduction . 84

Molecular diagnostic technologies . 84

Polymerase chain reaction . 84

Amplification .. 84

Target selection . 85

Detection of amplified DNA . 85

Limitations of PCR . 85

Real-time PCR systems .. 86

Limitations of real-time PCR .. 86

Future applications of real-time Q-PCR .. 87

Combined PCR-ELISA . 87

Non-PCR methods 87

Linked Linear Amplification . 88

Transcription mediated amplification . 88

Rapid analysis of gene expression .. 88

WAVE nucleic acid fragment analysis system .. 88

DNA probes with conjugated minor groove binder . 89

Rolling circle amplification technology 89

Gene-based diagnostics through RCAT 90

RCAT-immunodiagnostics 90

RCAT-biochips 91

RCAT-pharmacogenomics .. 91

Circle-to-circle amplification . 91

Biochips and microarrays .. 91

Applications of biochips/microarrays 92

Role of biochip/microarrays in discovery of biomarkers . 92

Biomarkers and high throughput molecular screening . 93

Detection and expression profiling of miRNA 93

Real-time PCR for expression profiling of miRNAs .. 94

Real-time PCR for expression profiling of miRNAs .. 94

Use of LNA to explore miRNA 94

Microarrays for analysis of miRNA gene expression .. 94

4. Biomarkers for Drug Discovery & Development 96

Introduction . 96

Biomarker technologies for drug discovery 97

Proteomics-based biomarkers for drug discovery .. 97

Chemoproteomics 97

Activity-based chemical proteomics . 97

Transcriptomics for drug discovery . 98

Metabolomics for drug discovery . 98

Biomarkers and drug safety .. 99

Biomarkers of adverse drug reactions 99

Applications of biomarkers in drug safety studies .. 99

Genomic technologies for toxicology biomarkers . 100

Proteomic technologies for toxicology biomarkers .. 100

Metabonomic technologies for toxicology biomarkers . 101

Integration of genomic and metabonomic data to develop toxicity biomarkers .. 101

Toxicology studies based on biomarkers 101

Biomarkers of hepatotoxicity .. 102

Biomarkers of nephrotoxicity .. 103

Cardiotoxicity .. 104

Neurotoxicity 105

Applications of biomarkers for drug development .. 106

Application of metabonomics/metabolomics for drug development 106

Role of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic biomarkers in drug development 106

Molecular imaging as a biomarker in drug development 107

Molecular imaging in preclinical studies 107

Molecular imaging in clinical trials . 108

Prospects of molecular imaging in drug discovery and development .. 109

Biomarkers in clinical trials . 109 - 6 -

NIH recommendations on the use of biomarkers in clinical trials . 110

Advantages of biomarkers for drug development . 111

Limitations and problems with use of biomarkers in clinical trials 112

Application of biomarkers by the pharmaceutical companies 112

Use of biomarkers in relation to stage of drug discovery and development . 113

Drug development in cardiovascular disorders . 114

Drug development in neurological disorders . 114

Future prospects of biomarker-based drug development .. 115

The Biomarker Alliance . 115

Molecular Libraries and Imaging Roadmap of NIH 115

Biomarkers Consortium 116

Pharmacogenomic biomarker information in drug labels . 117

5. Role of Biomarkers in Healthcare . 118

Introduction .. 118

Biomarkers of inflammation 118

ESR and CRP as biomarkers of inflammation 119

Biomarkers of oxidative stress . 119

1,4-dihydroxynonane-mercapturic acid .. 119

Oxidative DNA damage 120

Proteins as biomarkers of oxidative stress in diseases .. 120

Testing for oxidative stress 120

Biomarkers in metabolic disorders.. 120

Biomarkers of acute intermittent porphyria .. 120

Liver X receptors .. 121

Biomarkers of diabetes mellitus 121

Biomarkers of hyperglycemia . 122

Biomarkers of diabetes-associated oxidative stress . 122

Biomarkers of inflammation associated with diabetes . 123

Biomarkers of renal complications in diabetes mellitus type 2 .. 123

Biomarkers of diabesity 123

Glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetes mellitus 123

Lack of C-peptide as biomarker of complications of diabetes type 1 123

Serum retinol binding protein 4 as biomarker of insulin resistance . 124

Biomarkers of metabolic syndrome . 124

Adiponectin .. 124

Biomarkers in immune disorders . 125

Biomarkers relevant to organ transplantation .. 125

Biomarkers of graft versus host disease .. 125

Biomarkers of renal allograft failure .. 127

Biomarkers of renal transplant tolerance . 128

Biomarkers of lung transplant rejection .. 128

Systemic lupus erythematosus . 129

Current management and need for biomarkers . 129

Role of collaborative efforts and databases of SLE biomarkers . 129

C4d-bearing reticulocytes 130

Adiponectin .. 130

CB-CAPS 130

Genetic loci of SLE . 130

Epigenetic biomarkers of SLE . 130

Biomarkers of musculoskeletal disorders 131

Biomarkers of rheumatoid arthritis .. 131

Circulating cytokines in RA .. 131

Serum CRP in RA 131

Assays for biomarkers of RA 132

Biomarkers of spondylarthritis .. 132

Biomarkers of osteoarthritis .. 133

Biomarkers of osteoporosis 134

Dual x-ray absorptiometry . 134

Bone imaging with quantitative CT and MRI . 134

Assays for detection of biomarkers of osteoporosis . 135

Biomarkers of infectious diseases 135

Chemokines as biomarkers of infection 136

Circulating CPS-1 as biomarkers of organ damage in sepsis . 136

Endotoxin . 137

Procalcitonin . 137

Application of proteomics for discovering biomarkers of infections . 138

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome .. 138

Nitric oxide as a biomarker of sepsis 139

Tuberculosis 139

Conventional diagnosis of tuberculosis . 140 - 7 -

Molecular diagnostics for tuberculosis .. 140

Biomarkers for tuberculosis . 140

Biomarkers of pulmonary tuberculosis in the breath 141

Biomarkers of viral infections 141

Viral hepatitis .. 141

Biomarkers of SARS .. 143

Biomarkers of HIV .. 144

Biomarkers in parasitic infections . 144

Role of biomarkers in malaria . 144

Identification of biomarkers in Schistosomiasis infections .. 145

Biomarkers of liver disease . 146

Breath biomarkers of liver disease .. 146

Biomarkers of viral hepatitis B and C .. 146

Biomarkers of liver injury 147

Biomarkers of liver cirrhosis .. 147

FibroMax .. 147

Biomarkers of pancreatitis .. 148

Biomarkers of renal disease 148

Biomarkers of lupus nephritis 149

Biomarkers of diabetic nephropathy 149

Cystatin C as biomarker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) . 149

Estimated GFR and albuminuria as biomarkers of chronic kidney disease 149

Proteomic biomarkers of acute kidney injury 150

Biomarkers of pulmonary diseases . 150

Biomarkers of oxidative stress in lung diseases 151

Biomarkers of survival in acute respiratory distress syndrome 151

Urinary NO as biomarker.. 151

Plasma biomarkers related to inflammation 151

Pulmonary surfactant proteins as biomarkers for lung diseases .. 152

Cytokine/chemokine biomarkers of SARS 152

Biomarkers of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 152

Increased expression of PIGF as a biomarker of COPD 153

Chromagranin A (CgA) as biomarker of airway obstruction in smokers .. 153

BNP as a biomarker of chronic pulmonary disease 153

Alpha1-antitrypsin gene polymorphisms predisposing to emphysema 154

Biomarkers of asthma . 154

Comparison of biomarkers of asthma and COPD .. 154

Exaled NO as a biomarker of asthma 154

Cytokines as biomarkers of asthma severity .. 155

Biomarker for rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbation .. 155

Biomarkers for predicting response to corticosteroid therapy 156

IgE as guide to dosing of omalizumab for asthma 156

Endothelin-1 in exhaled breath as biomarker of asthma . 156

Biomarkers for cystic fibrosis . 157

Biomarkers of pulmonary embolism 157

Biomarkers in gynecology and obstetrics. 158

Biomarkers of menopause .. 158

Biomarkers of premenstrual dysphoric disorder .. 158

Biomarkers of endometriosis . 159

Biomarkers for preeclampsia . 159

Protein biomarker of preeclampsia in urine . 160

Protein biomarkers of preeclampsia in CSF . 160

Protein HtrA1 as biomarker for preeclampsia . 160

sFlt1 and soluble endoglin as biomarkers of preeclampsia . 161

RNA biomarkers .. 161

Biomarkers of premature birth .. 162

Biomarkers of oxidative stress in complicated pregnancies .. 162

Fetal biomarkers in maternal blood . 162

Biomarkers for genetic disorders . 163

Biomarkers for Down's syndrome . 163

Biomarkers for muscular dystrophy . 163

Biomarkers of phenylketonuria . 164

Genetic biomarkers for psoriasis .. 164

Biomarkers of lysosomal storage disorders 165

Biomarkers of aging 166

Effect of calorie restriction on biomarkers of longevity .. 167

Genes as biomarkers of aging 167

Mitochondrial mutations as biomarkers of aging 167

Telomere attrition as aging biomarker . 168

Gene variants as determinants of biological age 168

Genetic signatures of longevity .. 168 - 8 -

Low serum thyroid hormone level as biomarker of longevity 169

Role of bioinformatics in search for biomarkers of aging 169

Study of biomarkers of aging in a genetically homogeneous population .. 169

Biomarkers of miscellaneous disorders. 170

Biomarkers of chronic fatigue syndrome 170

Biomarkers of inflammatory bowel disease 170

Biomarkers of erectile dysfunction 171

Biomarkers of heat stroke .. 171

Nasal nitric oxide as a biomarker of response to rhinosinusitis therapy 172

Biomarkers common to multiple diseases .. 172

Biomarkers and nutrition . 172

Biomarkers in nutritional epidemiology .. 172

Biomarkers of nutritional status 173

Biomarkers of branched chain amino acid status . 173

Biomarkers of caloric restriction 174

Biomarkers of malnutrition . 174

Proteomic biomarkers and nutrition . 174

Biomarkers of gene-environmental interactions in human disease . 174

6. Biomarkers of Cancer . 176

Introduction .. 176

The ideal biomarker for cancer . 176

Single vs multiple biomarkers of cancer . 177

Types of cancer biomarkers 177

HER3 as biomarker of cancer . 178

DNA repair biomarkers 178

miRNAs as biomarkers in cancer .. 178

Circulating miRNAs for cancer detection .. 180

Diagnostic value of miRNA in cancer . 180

Biomarkers of epigenetic gene silencing in cancer .. 180

Immunologic biomarkers of cancer .. 181

Molecular diagnostic techniques for cancer 181

Technologies for detection of cancer biomarkers . 182

Genomic technologies for cancer biomarkers 182

Cold-PCR .. 182

Genome analysis at the molecular level .. 183

Sequencing-based approaches for detection of cancer biomarkers .. 183

Early detection of tumor suppressor gene mutations .. 183

Biomarkers of PTEN tumor suppressor gene status .. 184

HAAH as a biomarker for cancer 184

KRAS as a biomarker of cancer .. 185

Telomerase as a biomarker of cancer .. 185

Digital karyotyping for cancer biomarkers .. 185

LigAmp for detection of gene mutations in cancer 186

Mitochondrial DNA as a cancer biomarker 186

Tissue microarrays for study of cancer biomarkers . 186

Molecular fingerprinting of cancer 187

Biomarkers of inflammation in cancer . 188

Proteomic technologies for detecting biomarkers of cancer .. 188

2D PAGE 189

Antibody-based detection of protein biomarkers .. 189

Aptamer-based molecular probes for cancer biomarker discovery 190

Cancer immunomics to identify autoantibody signatures 190

Desorption electrospray ionization for detection of cancer biomarkers 191

Detection of circulating nucleosomes in serum of cancer patients 191

Detection of tumor markers with ProteinChip technology .. 191

eTag assay system for cancer biomarkers .. 192

Glycoprotein biomarkers of cancer 192

HER-2/neu oncoprotein as biomarkers for cancer . 193

Humoral proteomics .. 193

Laser capture microdissection . 193

Membrane-type serine protease-1 . 194

Phage display technology . 194

Proteomic analysis of cancer cell mitochondria .. 194

Proteomic technologies for detection of autoimmune biomarkers 195

SELDI-TOF MS . 195

Serum proteome analysis for early detection of cancer .. 195

Tissue proteomics for discovery of cancer biomarkers . 196

Metabolomic biomarkers of cancer .. 196

Choline phospholipid biomarkers of cancer . 196

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 .. 197 - 9 -

Detection of drug resistance in cancer by metabolic profiling 197

Epitomics for the early detection of cancer 197

Detection of biomarkers of DNA methylation 198

PCR with bisulfite for detecting DNA methylation biomarkers in cancer . 199

MDScan? microarray technology .. 200

Rubicon MethylPlex technology .. 200

Epigenomics Marker Machine for DNA methylation biomarkers . 201

Sequenom's integrated genetic analysis platform . 201

Histone deacetylase .. 201

Mucins as epigenetic biomarkers in epithelial cancers . 202

Nanobiotechnology for early detection of cancer to improve treatment 202

Selective expression of biomarkers by cancer compared with normal tissues . 202

Ultrasound radiation to enhance release of a tumor biomarker .. 203

In vivo imaging of cancer biomarkers . 203

Computer tomography .. 203

Optical systems for in vivo molecular imaging of cancer . 203

Positron emission tomography 204

Imaging of tumor oxygenation and microvascular permeability by MRI . 204

Xenon-enhanced MRI 204

Kallikrein gene family and cancer biomarkers .. 205

Circulating cancer cells in blood as biomarkers of cancer .. 205

Applications of cancer biomarkers .. 206

Use of biomarkers for cancer classification 206

Cancer classification using microarrays 206

Proteomic classification of cancer .. 207

Use of biomarkers for early detection of cancer .. 207

Applications of biomarkers for cancer diagnosis .. 207

Methylated DNA sequences as cancer biomarkers 207

MicroRNA expression profiling for diagnosis of human cancers . 208

MUC4 as a diagnostic biomarker in cancer .. 208

Applications of biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and therapy .. 209

Asparagine synthetase as biomarker for therapy with L-asparaginase 209

Peptide-based agents for targeting cancer biomarkers 210

Biomarkers for assessing efficacy of cancer therapy .. 210

ERCC1-XPF expression as a biomarker of response to chemotherapy . 210

P53 expression level as biomarker of efficacy of cancer gene therapy 210

Biomarkers of angiogenesis for developing antiangiogenic therapy 210

Biomarkers of response to antiangiogenic agent brivanib alaninate 211

Circulating endothelial cells as targets for antiangiogenic drugs .. 211

DCE-MRI biomarkers for evaluation of antiangiogenic agents 211

Combination of soluble biomarkers of angiogenesis with imaging 212

Tumor endothelial markers.. 212

VEGF signalling inhibitors as biomarkers . 213

Biomarkers of prognosis in cancer treatment 213

Biomarkers of drug resistance in cancer . 213

A systems approach to biomarkers of innate drug resistance 214

Epithelial membrane protein-1 as a biomarker of gefitinib resistance . 214

Methylation biomarkers of drug resistance in cancer 214

Biomarkers of radiation exposure and response .. 215

Role of biomarkers in drug development in oncology 215

Molecular imaging of tumor as a guide to drug development .. 216

Use of PET to assess response to anticancer drugs .. 216

Use of MRI to assess response to anticancer drugs .. 217

Biomarkers in plucked hair for assessing cancer therapy .. 217

Molecular targets of anticancer drugs as biomarkers . 218

Safety biomarkers in oncology studies 218

Role of biomarkers in phase I clinical trials of anticancer drugs .. 218

Biomarkers according to location/type of cancer 219

Bladder cancer biomarkers . 219

Detection of FGFR3 mutations in urine for diagnosis of bladder cancer .. 219

NMP22 BladderChek .. 219

Urinary telomerase as biomarker for detection of bladder cancer 219

Concluding remarks abut biomarkers of urinary cancer .. 220

Brain cancer biomarkers . 220

Biomarkers to predict response to EGFR inhibitors .. 220

CD133 as biomarker of resistance to radiotherapy .. 221

Circulating microvesicles as biomarkers .. 221

CSF protein profiling .. 221

CSF attractin as a biomarker of malignant astrocytoma . 222

Methylation profiling of brain tumors 222

Metabolite biomarkers of brain tumors . 223 - 10 -

miRNAs as biomarkers of brain tumors 223

MRI biomarker for response of brain tumor to therapy 224

Multigene predictor of outcome in GBM 224

Neuroimaging biomarkers combined with DNA microarray analysis. 224

Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase ? as biomarker of gliomas .. 225

Serum protein fingerprinting .. 225

VEGF-R2 as biomarker of angiogenesis in brain tumors.. 225

Breast cancer biomarkers .. 225

Biomarkers of breast cancer in breath . 227

Biomarkers for breast cancer in nipple aspiration fluid 227

Circulating nucleic acid biomarkers of breast cancer 227

Flow cytometry for quantification of biomarker expression patterns 227

Plasma proteomics for biomarkers of breast cancer . 228

Quantitative realtime PCR assays for biomarker validation 228

Cdk6 as a biomarker of breast cancer .. 229

Centromere protein-F 229

Carbonic anhydrase IX .. 229

COX-2 as a biomarker of breast cancer 230

Glycomic biomarkers of breast cancer.. 230

HER-2/neu oncoprotein . 230

High mobility group protein A2 .. 232

Hypermethylated genes as biomarkers of metastatic breast cancer 232

Lipocalin 2 as biomarker of breast cancer progression 232

Long intervening non-coding RNAs 233

Mammaglobin .. 233

miRNA biomarkers of breast cancer .. 233

p27 expression as biomarker for survival after chemotherapy .. 234

Podocalyxin .. 234

Progranulin as a biomarker of breast cancer .. 235

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen 235

Protein kinase C as a predictive biomarker of metastatic breast cancer . 235

Retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene as a biomarker . 235

Riboflavin carrier protein .. 236

Risk of invasive cancer after diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ .. 236

Serum CA 15-3 as biomarker of prognosis in advanced breast cancer 237

Suppressor of deltex protein 237

Tumor microenvironment as biomarker of metastasis in breast cancer .. 237

Type III TGF-? receptor as regulator of cancer progression .. 237

Diagnostic tests based on breast cancer genes . 238

Prognostic role of breast cancer genes . 239

Protein biomarkers for breast cancer prevention .. 240

Biomarkers to evaluate efficacy of chemoprevention .. 240

Biomarkers of response to chemotherapy of breast cancer 240

Cervical cancer biomarkers 241

Gastrointestinal cancer biomarkers . 242

Gastric cancer biomarkers 243

Colorectal cancer biomarkers .. 243

Head and neck cancer . 247

Leukemia biomarkers .. 248

Chromosome translocations in leukemias 248

DNA methylation biomarkers in leukemia 249

Gene mutations as biomarkers in leukemia 249

Molecular diagnostic techniques for leukemia. 250

Proteomic technologies for discovering biomarkers of leukemia 250

Biomarkers of chronic lymphocytic leukemia .. 251

Biomarkers of chronic myeloid leukemia . 251

Biomarkers of drug resistance in leukemia . 252

Biomarkers of myelodysplasitic syndromes . 252

Lymphoma biomarkers 252

Liver cancer biomarkers .. 252

Lung cancer biomarkers .. 253

Autoantibodies as biomarkers in lung cancer . 254

Biomarkers associated with neuroendocrine differentiation in NSCLC . 255

Biomarkers of chronic inflammation in lung cancer .. 255

Biomarkers for predicting sensitivity to chemotherapy in lung cancer 255

Biomarkers for prediction of sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors . 256

Circulating tumor cells as biomarkers .. 257

Gene expression profiling for biomarkers of lung cancer . 257

Methylation biomarkers of lung cancer . 258

miRNA biomarkers in lung cancer .. 258

Proteomic biomarkers in exaled breath condensate . 259 - 11 -

Serum protein biomarkers of lung cancer 259

tNOX as biomarker of lung cancer . 259

Tumor-derived DNA and RNA markers in blood . 260

Volatile organic compounds in the exhaled breath 260

Malignant pleural mesothelioma 260

Melanoma biomarkers . 261

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma biomarkers .. 262

Proteomic biomarkers of nasopharyngeal cancer .. 263

miRNA biomarkers of nasopharyngeal carcinoma . 264

Oral cancer biomarkers 264

Ovarian cancer biomarkers . 265

Epitomics approach for ovarian cancer biomarkers in serum . 266

Gene expression studies in ovarian cancer . 266

HtrA1 as a biomarker of response to chemotherapy in ovarian cancer .. 267

Mutation of genes in ovarian cancer . 267

Serum biomarkers of ovarian cancer prognosis . 267

Serum albumin-associated peptides and proteins . 268

Multiplex assays for biomarkers of ovarian cancer 268

Concluding remarks on biomarker-based tests of ovarian cancer. 269

Pancreatic cancer biomarkers 269

Discovery and validation of pancreatic cancer biomarkers . 270

Cancer stem cells as biomarkers of pancreatic cancer . 271

Histone modifications used as biomarkers in pancreatic cancer 271

miRNA biomarkers of pancreatic cancer .. 271

Proteomic biomarkers of pancreatic cancer . 272

Prostate cancer .. 273

Adipose tissue-derived biomarkers of obesity-related prostate cancer 274

B7-H3 as biomarker of prostate cancer 274

Detection of prostate cancer biomarkers in urine . 275

Detection of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia .. 276

Epigenetic biomarkers of prostate cancer 276

Gene expression analysis of prostate cancer .. 276

Genetic biomarkers of prostate cancer . 277

Huntingtin Interacting Protein 1 overexpression in prostate cancer . 277

Id proteins expression in prostate cancer 277

Identification of prostate cancer mRNA biomarkers . 278

Integrative genomic and proteomic profiling of prostate cancer .. 278

LCM for diagnosis of prostate cancer 278

Loss of p27 as predictor of recurrence of prostate cancer .. 279

Microarray for diagnosis of prostate cancer 279

miRNA biomarkers of prostate cancer .. 279

Prostate cancer biomarkers in semen .. 280

PSA as biomarker of prostate cancer 280

ProPSA as biomarker of prostate cancer .. 280

Prostate Health Index 281

PSMA as biomarker of prostate cancer . 281

Sarcosine as a metabolic biomarker of prostate cancer .. 281

Serum HAAH as biomarker of prostate cancer 281

Silenced CDH13 gene as a biomarker of cancer 282

Serum-protein fingerprinting .. 282

Tests for prostate cancer based on genetic dislocations . 282

Concluding remarks on biomarkers of prostate cancer 283

Renal cancer biomarkers . 283

Gene expression profile of RCC for biomarkers . 283

miRNA biomarkers of renal cancer 283

Use of proteomics for detection of RCC biomarkers . 284

Use of RCC biomarkers for prognosis and therapy 284

Thyroid cancer biomarkers . 285

Gene expression biomarkers of thyroid cancer .. 285

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B as risk factor for thyroid cancer 286

miRNA biomarkers of thyroid cancer . 286

Biochemical biomarkers of thyroid cancer .. 286

Role of the NCI in molecular diagnosis of cancer . 286

The Cancer Genome Anatomy Project . 287

Molecular profiling of cancer .. 287

Cancer Genome Atlas .. 287

Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility Project . 288

Oncology Biomarker Qualification Initiative .. 288

Role of NCI in cancer biomarker development and validation .. 289

COBRED project for cancer biomarker research in Europe .. 290

Future prospects for cancer biomarkers .. 291 - 12 -

Cancer biomarker research at academic institutions .. 291

Future prospects and challenges in the discovery of cancer biomarkers .. 291

7. Biomarkers of Disorders of the Nervous System 294

Introduction .. 294

Discovery of biomarkers for neurological disorders 294

Biomarker identification in the CSF using proteomics . 295

Biomarker identification in the CSF using lipidomics .. 295

Cerebral microdialysis for the study of biomarkers of cerebral metabolism . 295

Detection of protein biomarkers of CNS disorders in the blood 296

Brain imaging for detection of biomarkers . 296

Biomarkers of the aging brain .. 297

Cellular biomarker of aging of the brain . 297

Protein aggregation as a biomarker of aging brain.. 297

Data mining for biomarkers of neurological disorders .. 297

Antibodies as biomarkers in disorders of the nervous system .. 298

Biomarkers of neural regeneration . 298

Biomarkers of disruption of blood-brain barrier 298

Biomarkers of neurotoxicity 299

Glial fibrillary acidic protein as biomarker of neurotoxicity 299

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10. Reportlinker Adds Photovoltaic Technology Roadmap
11. Reportlinker Adds Biobanking for Medical R&D: Technology and Market 2010-2025
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