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QinetiQ North America and NASA Advance Space Travel with First Forward Osmosis Experiments in Microgravity
Date:9/19/2011

MCLEAN, Va., Sept. 19, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- QinetiQ North America announced today the results of another successful experiment completed on board the final flight of the space shuttle Atlantis (STS-135) in July 2011. The experiment, the first of its kind in microgravity, tested the novel application in space of a technology modeled on a biological process used by cells on Earth to recover water from their environment. Already engineered for use in applications ranging from desalination plants to treating non-potable water for backpackers, forward osmosis is the natural diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane. The membrane permits small polar molecules like water to pass through while blocking most other molecules like salts, sugars, starches, or proteins, and stopping all microorganisms like protozoan parasites, bacteria, and viruses. On earth, the process converts undrinkable water to a potable fluid in a few hours; how the process would work in reduced gravity was unknown prior to this experiment.

In testing on the shuttle, the experiment demonstrated the process to be nearly as effective in microgravity as in normal gravity. For the microgravity experiment, scientists from QinetiQ North America and NASA worked with the creators of the X-Pack™, a commercially available product, to develop the Forward Osmosis Bag (FOB), a passive, personal, portable water purification device. The experiment used a combination of indicator dyes and calculated the effect of mechanical mixing -- i.e., shaking three of the experiment's six FOBs for a few minutes -- on the rate of water passage across the membrane. Additional ground control experiments for the forward osmosis study will be conducted later this month at the Kennedy Space Center.

"If we discover that manual manipulation helps, then we hope a long-term application would result in a spacesuit which would induce the mechanical mixing as astronauts move around during spacewal
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SOURCE QinetiQ North America
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