Vidaza was the first drug approved for the treatment of all five subtypes of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), including refractory anemia (RA), refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (RARS) (if accompanied by neutropenia or thrombocytopenia or requiring transfusions), refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB), refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEB-T), and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMMoL).
Vidaza is believed to exert its antineoplastic effects by causing hypomethylation of DNA and direct cytotoxicity on abnormal hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow. The concentration of azacitidine required for maximum inhibition of DNA methylation in vitro does not cause major suppression of DNA synthesis. Hypomethylation may restore normal function to genes that are critical for differentiation and proliferation. The cytotoxic effects of azacitidine cause the death of rapidly dividing cells, including cancer cells that are no longer responsive to normal growth control mechanisms. Non-proliferating cells are relatively insensitive to Vidaza.
Important Safety Information
Vidaza is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to
azacitidine or mannitol and in patients with advanced malignant hepatic
tumors. In clinical studies, the most commonly occurring adverse reactions
were nausea (70.5%), anemia (69.5%), thrombocytopenia (65.5%), vomiting
(54.1%), pyrexia (51.8%), leukopenia (48.2%), diarrhea (36.4%), fatigue
(35.9%), injection site erythema (35.0%), constipation (33.6%), neutropenia
(32.3%) and ecchymosis (30.5%). Other adverse reactions included dizziness
(18.6%), chest pain (16.4%), febrile neutropenia(16.4%), myalgia (15.9%),
injection site reaction (13.6%), aggravated fatigue (12.7%) and malaise
(10.9%). Because treatment with Vidaza is associated with neutropenia and
thrombocytopenia, complete blood counts should be performed as needed
|SOURCE Pharmion Corporation|
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