Navigation Links
Penn researchers' study of phase change materials could lead to better computer memory

PHILADELPHIA -- Memory devices for computers require a large collection of components that can switch between two states, which represent the 1's and 0's of binary language. Engineers hope to make next-generation chips with materials that distinguish between these states by physically rearranging their atoms into different phases. Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have now provided new insight into how this phase change happens, which could help engineers make memory storage devices faster and more efficient.

The research was conducted by Ritesh Agarwal, associate professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering in Penn's School of Engineering and Applied Science, along with members of his research group. A.T. Charlie Johnson, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy in the School of Arts and Sciences, and Ju Li, now a professor of nuclear science and engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, also contributed to the study.

Their research was published in the journal Science.

"For many years there has been a push to find memory storage that is at once scalable, non-volatile and fast," Agarwal said. "Phase change materials could meet all of those criteria, but the problem is that we don't know much about how these materials actually work."

Some kinds of memory, like a computer's RAM, can switch between states very quickly, allowing for the computation necessary to run programs. But this kind of memory is "volatile" in that it needs a constant supply of power to maintain its states. Other kinds of memory, like the kind found on a flash drive, is non-volatile in that it retains its data even after the power is turned off. This kind of memory, however, has low switching speeds. Researchers have long attempted to find a "universal memory" which combines both non-volatility and high switching speeds, along with scalability, the ability to store large amounts of data.

While there are other contenders, phase change materials, or PCMs, are ideal candidates for universal memory. PCM storage devices are now starting to become commercially available, but their efficiency is hindered by the fact that the actual mechanics of their phase change are not well understood.

The phases these PCMs switch between are different arrangements of their internal atomic structure. They begin in a crystalline phase, where their atoms are in an ordered lattice but can switch to a disordered, amorphous phase. The two phases provide much different levels of resistance to electrical current, which is why they are useful for memory storage.

"When you have atoms arranged in a periodic lattice, electrons can flow very easily as they essentially know what to expect," Agarwal said. "But in the amorphous phase, there is no long-range order; there's no way to predict the position of atoms going from one part of the material to the other. This scatters the electrons, leading to very high resistance."

It has been generally believed that the only way to switch between these two states involved heating, which allows the atoms to move out of their lattice positions as the material briefly melts, and rapid cooling, or "quenching," which solidifies the material into the amorphous phase without giving its atoms the chance to re-crystallize.

"Now we have shown that there is a way to achieve this transition without melting the material," Agarwal said. "We show that short electrical pulses of a few hundred nanosecond duration gradually induce disorder in the material until it amorphizes."

Their advance was made possible by fashioning a PCM into thin nanowires, rather than a more bulky counterpart. This enabled the researchers to observe the phase change as it happened using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope. Earlier researchers could only look at cross sections of their bulkier PCMs after the switching process was over.

By looking at the change in "real time," the Penn researchers could see what effect the electrical pulses were having at an atomic level of detail.

"The pulses create 'dislocations,' which are planes of atoms removed from the crystal pattern, disrupting the order locally on an atomic length scale," said Pavan Nukala, a co-author and member of the Agarwal group. "As we apply more and more pulses, the number of these dislocations start to increase."

"Eventually, the dislocations start to move down the nanowire in the direction of the current," Agarwal said. "At certain point, the number and density of dislocations becomes so huge that they jam in one spot."

Like a traffic jam on a highway, the dislocations continue to pile up at that spot as more and more move down the length of the nanowire. At a critical point, the increasing disorder causes the material to amorphize the wire at the location of the jam.

The amorphous region, which always forms at the point of the jam and cuts through the entire cross section of the nanowire, is proof that this dislocation-based mechanism is fundamentally different from the melt-quench mechanism. With melting, the amorphous part should have spread along the surface of the material, rather than cut through its cross section.

"Having the surface amorphize doesn't give us high resistance ratios because current can still travel through the crystalline interior," Agarwal said. "Cutting across the entire nanowire completely blocks the current, making for a much better memory devices.

"With surface melting, you can increase the resistance a few times at most, but our observation that the resistance increased by two or three orders of magnitude is another evidence of the new mechanism."

The PCM that researchers used in their study contained long tellurium-telluriumbonds that can easily slide apart, facilitating the planar dislocations that cause the material to amorphize.

The material, along with a better understanding of the mechanics of its phase change, will provide a starting point for picking the right qualities for future PCMs.

"If people think that melting is the only mechanism for phase change, then all the emphasis will be on making materials with low melting temperatures," Agarwal said. "But we've shown that we need to do something else, which is to also look for materials that can create dislocations easily."

Contact: Evan Lerner
University of Pennsylvania

Related biology technology :

1. Researchers tune the strain in graphene drumheads to create quantum dots
2. WHEATON® Introduces a New Web Community for Scientists, Researchers, and Biopharmaceutical Packagers
3. Stevenage Bioscience Catalyst to Welcome Cambridge University Researchers
4. Syracuse University researchers use nanotechnology to harness power of fireflies
5. Researchers discover hereditary enzyme deficiency
6. JCVI Researchers, as Part of NIH Human Microbiome Project Consortium, Publish Papers Detailing the Variety and Abundance of Microbes Living on and in the Human Body
7. Produce Safety Researchers Awarded by ABC Research Laboratories
8. CNIO researchers describe a new target for developing anti-angiogenic and anti-tumoral therapies
9. U of S researchers create powerful new tool for research and drug development
10. Researchers love triangles
11. Sensing the infrared: Researchers improve IR detectors with single-walled carbon nanotubes
Post Your Comments:
(Date:11/25/2015)... ANNAPOLIS, Md. , Nov. 25, 2015  PharmAthene, ... of Directors has adopted a stockholder rights plan (Rights ... its net operating loss carryforwards (NOLs) under Section 382 ... --> --> PharmAthene,s use of its ... an "ownership change" as defined in Section 382 of ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... Nov. 25, 2015  Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc. (Nasdaq: ... President and CEO of Neurocrine Biosciences, will be presenting ... New York . ... website approximately 5 minutes prior to the presentation to ... the presentation will be available on the website approximately ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... , November 25, 2015 ... Report is a professional and in-depth study on ...      (Logo: ) , ... the industry including definitions, classifications, applications and industry ... for the international markets including development trends, competitive ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... SUNNYVALE, Calif. , Nov. 24, 2015 ... executives will be speaking at the following conference, and ... New York, NY      Tuesday, December 1, ... New York, NY      Tuesday, December 1, ...      Piper Jaffray Healthcare Conference, New York, NY ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
(Date:11/10/2015)... YORK , Nov. 10, 2015 ... to behavioral biometrics that helps to identify and ... fraud. Signature is considered as the secure and ... the identification of a particular individual because each ... more accurate results especially when dynamic signature of ...
(Date:11/9/2015)... , Nov. 9, 2015  Synaptics Inc. (NASDAQ: ... solutions, today announced broader entry into the automotive market ... that match the pace of consumer electronics human interface ... sensors are ideal for the automotive industry and will ... Europe , Japan ...
(Date:11/2/2015)... , Nov. 2, 2015  SRI International has ... to provide preclinical development services to the National Cancer ... SRI will provide scientific expertise, modern testing and support ... of preclinical pharmacology and toxicology studies to evaluate potential ... --> The PREVENT Cancer Drug Development Program is ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):