Navigation Links
Peering into Giant Planets from in and out of This World

Livermore, California (PRWEB) July 17, 2014

Lawrence Livermore scientists for the first time have experimentally re-created the conditions that exist deep inside giant planets, such as Jupiter, Uranus and many of the planets recently discovered outside our solar system.

Researchers can now re-create and accurately measure material properties that control how these planets evolve over time, information essential for understanding how these massive objects form. This study focused on carbon, the fourth most abundant element in the cosmos (after hydrogen, helium and oxygen), which has an important role in many types of planets within and outside our solar system. The research appears in the June 17 edition of the journal, Nature.

Using the largest laser in the world, the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, teams from the Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley and Princeton University squeezed samples to 50 million times Earth's atmospheric pressure, which is comparable to the pressures at the center of Jupiter and Saturn. Of the 192 lasers at NIF, the team used 176 with exquisitely shaped energy versus time to produce a pressure wave that compressed the material for a short period of time. The sample -- diamond -- is vaporized in less than 10 billionths of a second.

Though diamond is the least compressible material known, the researchers were able to compress it to an unprecedented density greater than lead at ambient conditions.

"The experimental techniques developed here provide a new capability to experimentally reproduce pressure-temperature conditions deep in planetary interiors," said Ray Smith, LLNL physicist and lead author of the paper.

Such pressures have been reached before, but only with shock waves that also create high temperatures -- hundreds of thousands of degrees or more -- that are not realistic for planetary interiors. The technical challenge was keeping temperatures low enough to be relevant to planets. The problem is similar to moving a plow slowly enough to push sand forward without building it up in height. This was accomplished by carefully tuning the rate at which the laser intensity changes with time.

"This new ability to explore matter at atomic scale pressures, where extrapolations of earlier shock and static data become unreliable, provides new constraints for dense matter theories and planet evolution models," said Rip Collins, another Lawrence Livermore physicist on the team.

The data described in this work are among the first tests for predictions made in the early days of quantum mechanics, more than 80 years ago, which are routinely used to describe matter at the center of planets and stars. While agreement between these new data and theory are good, there are important differences discovered, suggesting potential hidden treasures in the properties of diamond compressed to such extremes. Future experiments on NIF are focused on further unlocking these mysteries.

Read the full story at

Source: PRWeb
Copyright©2014 Vocus, Inc.
All rights reserved

Related biology technology :

1. Exotic particles, chilled and trapped, form giant matter wave
2. A giant step in a miniature world: UZH researcher measures the electrical charge of nano particles
3. VIASPACE Chairman and CEO Attend EUEC 2013, Giant King Grass Prominently Featured in Convention Exhibit Hall
4. GLM Displays Introduces New Banner Stand – 10’ Tall “Giant Mosquito”
5. Berkeley Lab researchers use metamaterials to observe giant photonic spin hall effect
6. Researchers untangle molecular pathology of giant axonal neuropathy
7. Express Diagnostics to Raise Funds for American Cancer Society During Blue Earth’s Giant Days Parade
8. Size matters in the giant magnetoresistance effect in semiconductors
9. MS Tûranor PlanetSolar Sets World Speed Record for Transatlantic Crossing by Solar Electric Vessel
10. Switzerland’s MS Tûranor PlanetSolar, the World’s Largest Solar Boat, Arrives in New York City
11. Plasma etching pushes the limits of a shrinking world
Post Your Comments:
(Date:11/28/2015)... South Korea (PRWEB) , ... November 28, 2015 , ... ... class of eco-friendly avian, porcine and rodent control solutions , ... as peppermint and cinnamon oil, works across all sensory modalities including visual, smell, taste ...
(Date:11/27/2015)... Kingdom , Nov. 27, 2015 /PRNewswire/--  Mallinckrodt plc ... company, announced today that it has closed the sale ... business to Guerbet (GBT- NYSE Euronext) in a transaction ... encompassed four manufacturing facilities and a total of approximately ... in the St. Louis area. ...
(Date:11/27/2015)... ... November 27, 2015 , ... ... includes over 2,000 technical presentations offered in symposia, oral sessions, workshops, awards, and ... covers a wide range of applications such as, but not limited to, biotechnology, ...
(Date:11/27/2015)... India , November 27, 2015 /PRNewswire/ ... --> Growing popularity of companion diagnostics ... in cancer biomarkers market with pharmaceutical companies ... in-demand companion diagnostic tests. ... --> Complete report on global cancer ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
(Date:11/26/2015)... Research and Markets ( ) has ... - Technology and Patent Infringement Risk Analysis" report ... --> Fingerprint sensors using capacitive technology represent ... sensor vendor Idex forecasts an increase of 360% of ... and of the fingerprint sensor market between 2014 and ...
(Date:11/20/2015)... November 20, 2015 NXTD ) ... on the growing mobile commerce market and creator of ... Pereira , was recently interviewed on The RedChip ... on this weekend on Bloomberg Europe , Bloomberg ... --> NXTD ) ("NXT-ID" or the "Company"), ...
(Date:11/19/2015)...  Based on its in-depth analysis of the biometric ... the 2015 Global Frost & Sullivan Award for Product ... this award to the company that has developed the ... the market it serves. The award recognizes the extent ... customer base demands, the overall impact it has in ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):