Navigation Links
New computer-tomography method visualizes nano-structure of bones
Date:9/22/2010

A novel nano-tomography method developed by a team of researchers from the Technische Universitaet Muenchen, the Paul Scherrer Institute and the ETH-Zurich opens the door to computed tomography examinations of minute structures at nanometer resolutions. Three-dimensional detailed imaging of fragile bone structures becomes possible. Their first nano-CT images will be published in Nature on Sept. 23, 2010. This new technique will facilitate advances in both life sciences and materials sciences.

Osteoporosis, a medical condition in which bones become brittle and fragile from a loss of density, is among the most common diseases in aging bones: In Germany around a quarter of the population aged over 50 is affected. Patients' bone material shrinks rapidly, leading to a significantly increased risk of fracture. In clinical research to date, osteoporosis is diagnosed almost exclusively by establishing an overall reduction in bone density. This approach, however, gives little information about the associated, and equally important, local structure and bone density changes. Franz Pfeiffer, professor for Biomedical Physics at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM) and head of the research team, has resolved the dilemma: "With our newly developed nano-CT method it is now possible to visualize the bone structure and density changes at high resolutions and in 3D. This enables us to do research on structural changes related to osteoporosis on a nanoscale and thus develop better therapeutic approaches."

During development, Pfeiffer's team built on X-ray computed tomography (CT). The principle is well established CT scanners are used every day in hospitals and medical practices for the diagnostic screening of the human body. In the process the human body is X-rayed while a detector records from different angles how much radiation is being absorbed. In principle it is nothing more than taking multiple X-ray pictures from various directions. A number of such pictures are then used to generate digital 3D images of the body's interior using image processing.

The newly developed method measures not only the overall beam intensity absorbed by the object under examination at each angle, but also those parts of the X-ray beam that are deflected in different directions "diffracted" in the language of physics. Such a diffraction pattern is generated for every point in the sample. This supplies additional information about the exact nanostructure, as X-ray radiation is particularly sensitive to the tiniest of structural changes. "Because we have to take and process so many individual pictures with extreme precision, it was particularly important during the implementation of the method to use high-brilliance X-ray radiation and fast, low-noise pixel detectors both available at the Swiss Light Source (SLS)," says Oliver Bunk, who was responsible for the requisite experimental setup at the PSI synchrotron facilities in Switzerland.

The diffraction patterns are then processed using an algorithm developed by the team. TUM researcher Martin Dierolf, lead author of the Nature article, explains: "We developed an image reconstruction algorithm that generates a high-resolution, three-dimensional image of the sample using over one hundred thousand diffraction patterns. This algorithm takes into account not only classical X-ray absorption, but also the significantly more sensitive phase shift of the X-rays." A showcase example of the new technique was the examination of a 25-micrometer, superfine bone specimen of a laboratory mouse with surprisingly exact results. The so-called phase contrast CT pictures show even smallest variations in the specimen's bone density with extremely high precision: Cross-sections of cavities where bone cells reside and their roughly 100 nanometer-fine interconnection network are clearly visible.

"Although the new nano-CT procedure does not achieve the spatial resolution currently available in electron microscopy, it can because of the high penetration of X-rays generate three-dimensional tomography images of bone samples," comments Roger Wepf, director of the Electron Microscopy Center of the ETH Zurich (EMEZ). "Furthermore, the new nano-CT procedure stands out with its high precision bone density measurement capacity, which is particularly important in bone research." This method will open the door to more precise studies on the early phase of osteoporosis, in particular, and evaluation of the therapeutic outcomes of various treatments in clinical studies.

The new technique is also very interesting for non-medical applications: Further fields of application include the development of new materials in materials science or in the characterization of semiconductor components. Ultimately, the nano-CT procedure may also be transferred to novel, laser-based X-ray sources, such as the ones currently under development at the Cluster of Excellence "Munich-Centre for Advanced Photonics" (MAP) and at the recently approved large-scale research project "Centre for Advanced Laser Applications" (CALA) on the TUM-Campus Garching near Munich.


'/>"/>

Contact: Dr. Andreas Battenberg
battenberg@zv.tum.de
49-892-891-0510
Technische Universitaet Muenchen
Source:Eurekalert  

Related biology technology :

1. Medicago discovers breakthrough method of preparing plant derived recombinant proteins and VLPs and files two PCT patent applications
2. Penn collaboration leads to simpler method for building varieties of nanocrystal superlattices
3. Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute develop new method for mass-producing graphene
4. Researchers develop ultra-simple method for creating nanoscale gold coatings
5. Liquid method: pure graphene production
6. Farmers Use Sustainable Farming Methods to Meet Global Food Demand
7. New method makes vaccines stable at tropical temperatures
8. ClearTrial Selected to Provide Methodologies for Accurately Forecasting and Budgeting Clinical Spend and Integrated Financial Controls at CBI Conference
9. Prototype NIST method detects and measures elusive hazards
10. Forensic Scientists at Kansas City Crime Lab Release Validation Report Confirming Zygems forensicGEM(R) Kit is a Reliable, Rapid Method for Extracting DNA From Saliva
11. Scientists develop novel method to generate functional hepatocytes for drug testing
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
New computer-tomography method visualizes nano-structure of bones
(Date:6/23/2016)... , June 23, 2016 On ... session at 4,833.32, down 0.22%; the Dow Jones Industrial Average ... 500 closed at 2,085.45, down 0.17%. Stock-Callers.com has initiated coverage ... INFI ), Nektar Therapeutics (NASDAQ: NKTR ), Aralez ... Inc. (NASDAQ: BIND ). Learn more about these ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... ... June 23, 2016 , ... ... and technical consulting, provides a free webinar on Performing Quality Investigations: ... 2016 at 12pm CT at no charge. , Incomplete investigations are still a ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 2016  Amgen (NASDAQ: AMGN ) today ... life sciences incubator to accelerate the development of ... space at QB3@953 was created to help high-potential life ... many early stage organizations - access to laboratory infrastructure. ... launched two "Amgen Golden Ticket" awards, providing each winner ...
(Date:6/22/2016)... , June 22, 2016 Cell Applications, ... allow them to produce up to one billion ... lot within one week. These high-quality, consistent stem ... preparing cells and spend more time doing meaningful, ... a proprietary, high-volume manufacturing process that produces affordable, ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
(Date:6/1/2016)... 2016 Favorable Government Initiatives Coupled ... Criminal Identification to Boost Global Biometrics System Market Through ... Research report, " Global Biometrics Market By Type, ... Opportunities, 2011 - 2021", the global biometrics market is ... account of growing security concerns across various end use ...
(Date:5/9/2016)... Elevay is currently known as ... for high net worth professionals seeking travel for work ... world, there is still no substitute for a face-to-face ... your deal with a firm handshake. This is why ... of citizenship via investment programs like those offered by ...
(Date:4/26/2016)... DUBLIN , April 27, 2016 ... of the  "Global Multi-modal Biometrics Market 2016-2020"  report ... ) , The analysts forecast ... a CAGR of 15.49% during the period 2016-2020.  ... a number of sectors such as the healthcare, ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):