Navigation Links
NYSCF scientists create personalized bone substitutes from skin cells
Date:5/6/2013

NEW YORK, NY (May 6, 2013) A team of New York Stem Cell Foundation (NYSCF) Research Institute scientists report today the generation of patient-specific bone substitutes from skin cells for repair of large bone defects. The study, led by Darja Marolt, PhD, a NYSCF-Helmsley Investigator and Giuseppe Maria de Peppo, PhD, a NYSCF Research Fellow, and published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, represents a major advance in personalized reconstructive treatments for patients with bone defects resulting from disease or trauma.

This advance will facilitate the development of customizable, three-dimensional bone grafts on-demand, matched to fit the exact needs and immune profile of a patient. Taking skin cells, the NYSCF scientists utilized an advanced technique called "reprogramming" to revert adult cells into an embryonic-like state. These induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells carry the same genetic information as the patient and they can become any of the body's cell types.

The NYSCF team guided these iPS cells to become bone-forming progenitors and seeded the cells onto a scaffold for three-dimensional bone formation. They then placed the constructs into a device called a bioreactor, which provides nutrients, removes waste, and stimulates maturation, mimicking a natural developmental environment.

"Bone is more than a hard mineral composite, it is an active organ that constantly remodels. Blood vessels shuttle important nutrients to healthy cells and remove waste; nerves provide connection to the brain; and, bone marrow cells form new blood and immune cells," said Marolt.

Previous studies have demonstrated the bone-forming potential from other cell sources, yet serious caveats for clinical translation remain. A patient's own bone marrow stem cells can form bone and cartilaginous tissue, not the underlying vasculature and nerve compartments; and, embryonic stem cell derived bone may prompt an immune rejection. The NYSCF scientists chose to work with iPS cells to overcome these limitations, comparing iPS sources with embryonic stem cells and bone marrow derived cells.

"No other research group has published work on creating fully-viable, functional, three-dimensional bone substitutes from human iPS cells. These results bring us closer to achieving our ultimate goal, to develop the most promising treatments for patients," said de Peppo.

While severity varies, bone defects and injuries are currently treated with bone grafts, taken either from another part of the patient's body or a donor bone bank, or with synthetic substitutes. None of these permit complex reconstruction, and they may elicit immune rejection or fail to integrate with surrounding connective tissues. For trauma patients, suffering from shrapnel wounds or vehicular injury, these traditional treatments provide limited functional and cosmetic improvement.

After a comprehensive in vitro analysis of the generated bone, the NYSCF team assessed stability when transplanted in an animal model to address a major concern for iPS-based cell therapies. Undifferentiated iPS cells can form teratomas, a type of tumor. The iPS cell-derived bone substitutes were implanted under the skin of immunocompromised mice. After 12 weeks, the explanted constructs matured and showed no malignancies but complete maturation of bone tissue, while blood vessel cells began to integrate along the grafts. These results indicate the stability of the bone substitutes.

The scientists caution that although these results represent a major advance, further research is necessary before skin cell-derived bone grafts reach patients. Next steps include protocol optimization and the successful growth of blood vessels within the bone.

"Following from these findings, we will be able to create tailored bone grafts, on demand, for patients without any immune rejection issues," said Susan L. Solomon, CEO of NYSCF. "This is not a good approach, it is the best approach to repair devastating damage or defects."

Beyond potential therapeutic relevance, these adaptive bone substitutes may be implemented to model bone development and different pathologies. Analysis could enrich current understanding and identify potential drug targets.


'/>"/>

Contact: David McKeon
dmckeon@nyscf.org
212-365-7440
New York Stem Cell Foundation
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology technology :

1. Scottish Scientists Lead This Years Life Science Discoveries
2. Scripps Research Institute Scientists Find Antibody that Transforms Bone Marrow Stem Cells Directly into Brain Cells
3. Scientists Find Way to Fast-Track Production of Stem Cells that Show Promise in Treating AMD
4. A bright idea: Tiny injectable LEDs help neuroscientists study the brain
5. Highly lethal Ebola virus has diagnostic Achilles heel for biothreat detection, scientists say
6. NineSigma Announces Winners in $25,000 Sustainable Packaging Challenge in Conjunction With Scientists Without Borders and Partners
7. Research Team led by JCVI Scientists Uncover More Complexity and Detail in Southern African Genomic Diversity
8. Dr. Ali S. Faqi and Leading Scientists Author Ground-Breaking Toxicology Book from Elsevier
9. Scientists discover molecule that does double duty in stopping asthma attacks
10. Scientists Warn of Long Term Consequences of Budget Sequestration: BioInformatics LLC Report
11. UC Santa Barbara scientists develop a whole new way of harvesting energy from the sun
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:1/20/2017)... ... January 20, 2017 , ... ... Surgery (LES®) Technologies, announced today the next evolution in spinal fusion, the ... platform). In contrast to the competition, SpineFrontier is focused on technique driven ...
(Date:1/19/2017)... , Jan. 19, 2017 /PRNewswire -- WuXi AppTec, ... open-access capability and technology platform, today announced that ... biology focused preclinical drug discovery contract research organization ... become a wholly-owned subsidiary of WuXi, and will ... and providing greater services. The acquisition will further ...
(Date:1/19/2017)... and GAITHERSBURG, Md. , ... PIP) and Altimmune, Inc., a privately-held immunotherapeutics company ... a definitive agreement for the merger of PharmAthene ... investors include Novartis Venture Fund, HealthCap, Truffle Capital ... a fully-integrated and diversified immunotherapeutics company with four ...
(Date:1/19/2017)... ... January 18, 2017 , ... LabRoots , the leading ... the world, was today awarded the "Best Science & Technology Social Networking Service ... and decided upon by a dedicated team of researchers and analysts. , The ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
(Date:1/12/2017)... NEW YORK , Jan. 12, 2017  New research ... around the office of the future.  1,000 participants were simply ... last three months which we may consider standard issue.  Insights ... office of 2017 were also gathered from futurists and industry ... and Dr. James Canton .  Some ...
(Date:1/11/2017)... 11, 2017  Michael Johnson, co-founder of Visikol Inc. a company ... has been named to the elite "Forbes 30 Under 30" list ... 600 people in 20 fields nationwide to be recognized as a ... applicants were selected. ... He is currently a PhD candidate at Rutgers University. ...
(Date:1/6/2017)...  Delta ID Inc., a leader in consumer-grade iris ... at CESĀ® 2017. Delta ID has collaborated with Gentex ... use of iris scanning as a secure, reliable and ... a car, and as a way to elevate the ... Delta ID and Gentex will demonstrate (booth #7326 LVCC) ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):