Navigation Links
Larger refuges needed to sustain success of transgenic corn

This release is also available in Chinese on EurekAlert! Chinese.

Transgenic crops that produce insect-killing proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have reduced reliance on insecticide sprays since 1996. Yet, just as insects become resistant to conventional insecticides, they also can evolve resistance to the Bt proteins in transgenic crops. Thus, to delay pest resistance, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required farmers to plant "refuges" of crops that do not produce Bt proteins near Bt crops. But how much refuge acreage is enough?

In "Delaying Corn Rootworm Resistance to Bt Corn," an article appearing in the June, 2012 issue of the Journal of Economic Entomology, authors Bruce Tabashnik (University of Arizona) and Fred Gould (North Carolina State University) conclude the EPA should more than double the percentage of corn acres planted to mandated refuges to delay insect resistance, encourage integrated pest management (IPM), and promote more sustainable crop protection.

To slow resistance in the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera), one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States, the EPA currently requires a 20% refuge for corn producing one Bt protein (Cry3Bb1), and a 5% refuge for corn that simultaneously produces two different Bt proteins. However, the authors note that this devastating pest has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 in some areas of the U.S. corn belt. For Bt corn to remain effective against rootworms, they recommend increasing refuge requirements to 50% for corn producing one Bt protein and 20% for corn producing two Bt proteins.

"Corn rootworms can cost U.S. farmers close to $1 billion each year. Bt corn has helped to reduce these costs and to decrease insecticide sprays, but evolution of resistance by the pests can diminish or even eliminate these benefits." said Dr. Tabashnik. "To delay pest resistance and sustain the benefits of Bt corn, we recommend planting more corn that does not produce Bt toxins active against rootworms. This approach, called the refuge strategy, allows the susceptible pests to survive and has worked to slow resistance of other pests to Bt crops."

"Most of the corn seed currently produced in the U.S. is transgenic and includes genes for insect control," said Dr. Gould. "Enlarging refuges will require more seed without corn rootworm control genes. This shift in production will take time, so this process should begin immediately."

In addition to increased refuge sizes, the authors write that the best way to postpone resistance is to use IPM, in which Bt corn is combined with other control tactics such as crop rotation and judicious use of insecticide sprays.

Contact: Bruce E. Tabashnik
Entomological Society of America

Related biology technology :

1. Quantum control protocols could lead to more accurate, larger scale quantum computations
2. Fundamental steps needed now in global redesign of Earth system governance
3. New Study: Health Professionals Support Biotechnologys Use In Food Products And Sustainable Farming
4. Scholars call for global governance overhaul to ensure Earths sustainability
5. Farm weeds have crucial role in sustainable agriculture
6. NIRI San Diego May Meeting: Seasoned IROs Discuss "Tips & Tactics for Establishing and Maintaining A Successful Investor Relations Program"
7. Customer Satisfaction, A key to Success: Narang Medical Limited
8. Floridas Leading Fertility Center Announces Successful Baby Delivery via Egg Freezing
9. Innocoll Announces Successful End-of-Phase 2 Meeting with FDA for XaraColl® and Agreement of the Phase 3 Program
10. First successful human results achieved: Implantable wireless microchip drug delivery device
11. Successful human tests for first wirelessly controlled drug-delivery chip
Post Your Comments:
(Date:11/24/2015)... 24, 2015 Capricor Therapeutics, Inc. ... the discovery, development and commercialization of first-in-class therapeutics, today ... Officer, is scheduled to present at the 2015 Piper ... a.m. EST, at The Lotte New York Palace Hotel ... . --> . ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... INCLINE VILLAGE, Nev. , Nov. 24, 2015  PDL ... John P. McLaughlin , the company,s president and chief ... Piper Jaffray Healthcare Conference next week in New ... and will occur on Tuesday, December 1, 2015 at 9:30 ... and Presentations." Please connect to the website at least 15 ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... ... , ... Whitehouse Laboratories is pleased to announce that it has completed construction ... dedicated to basic USP 61, USP 62 and USP 51 testing specific to raw ... and micro testing performed by one supplier. Management has formally announced that ...
(Date:11/23/2015)... , Nov. 24, 2015 Women with a certain ... exams face a higher risk of lung cancer than men ... next week at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society ... --> --> Lung nodules are ... as solid or subsolid based on their appearance on CT. ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
(Date:11/2/2015)...  SRI International has been awarded a contract of ... to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) PREVENT Cancer Program ... modern testing and support facilities, and analytical instrumentation to ... studies to evaluate potential cancer prevention drugs. ... Drug Development Program is an NCI-supported pipeline to bring ...
(Date:10/29/2015)... Va. , Oct. 29, 2015 Daon, ... today that it has released a new version of ... customers in North America have ... IdentityX v4.0 also includes a FIDO UAF certified ... are already preparing to activate FIDO features. These customers ...
(Date:10/29/2015)... , October 29, 2015 ... biometric authentication company focused on the growing mobile ... wallet announces that StackCommerce, a leading marketplace to ... featuring the Wocket® smart wallet on StackSocial for ... ) ("NXT-ID" or the "Company"), a biometric authentication ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):