Navigation Links
Epidemic outbreaks caused by environment, not evolution
Date:8/4/2014

Researchers have traced genetic changes in a bacterial pathogen over 450 years, and claim that epidemics of bacterial disease in human history may be caused by chance environmental changes rather than genetic mutations.

In a study published in PNAS, a team led by the University of Warwick analysed 149 genomes of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, which is a major cause of enteric fever. Enteric fever is currently estimated at 27 million clinical cases each year, resulting in 200,000 deaths.

Lead author, Zhemin Zhou from Warwick Medical School, said: "When epidemics break out, many scientists suspect they have been driven by increased virulence or fitness, possibly associated with the gain of novel genes or mutations. We wanted to trace genetic changes in a prominent bacterial pathogen back to see if this was true."

The team reconstructed the genealogy, global transmission history and evolutionary history and found the pathogen originated at least 450 years ago, and had not changed dramatically over the centuries. This suggests that the pathogen had not become more efficient at causing enteric fever.

Zhemin Zhou said: "We found the pathogen formed seven distinct lineages that spread globally since the mid-19th century. Tracing the pathogen, we found there were genetic mutations that may have transiently improved drug resistance or improved the metabolic efficiency. However, most mutations were short-lived and removed by evolutionary forces."

Senior author Professor Mark Achtman, Warwick Medical School, said: "We interpret the history of Paratyphi A as reflecting drift rather than progressive evolution. Our results indicate the crucial genomic contents of Paratyphi A, that cause enteric fever in humans, accumulated very early in its history.

"This implies that many epidemics and pandemics of bacterial disease in human history reflected chance environmental events, including geographical spread and/or transmission to
'/>"/>

Contact: Kelly Parkes-Harrison
k.e.parkes@warwick.ac.uk
0247-615-0868
University of Warwick
Source:Eurekalert

Page: 1 2

Related biology technology :

1. AASM Partners with CDC to Address Chronic Sleep Loss Epidemic
2. Waterloo Heights, a Neighborhood Smiles Dental Practice is Taking a Bold New Approach to the Cavity Epidemic
3. Dr. Kevin T. Tanty Takes a Bold New Approach to the Cavity Epidemic
4. Neighborhood Smiles of La Crosse Takes a Bold New Approach to the Tooth Decay Epidemic
5. Neighborhood Smiles of Green Bay Offers a New Approach to the Cavity Epidemic
6. Omaha Residents May See A Frightening Bed Bug Epidemic, MyCleaningProducts.com Offers Non Pesticide Treatment To Aid Victims
7. Relief Organizations Worry Sandy Clothing Donations Would Start Bed Bug Epidemic; Bed Bug Removal Guide Advises Disaster Victims to Prepare for It with Bed Bug Bully
8. Ebola Virus Gene Replikin Count Increased Sixteen-fold in 2013 in Advance of Current Outbreaks
9. New Norovirus "Vomiting Virus" Strain Spreads Like Wildfire, My Cleaning Products Publishes Green Guide to Prevent Norovirus Outbreaks in One's Home
10. Tropical Storm Debby Pounds Florida With Heavy Rain. Green Bean Buddy Gives Reason Why Home Owners Should Prepare For Mold Outbreaks
11. US Lab Deployed to Boost Mexicos Response to Outbreaks of Infectious Disease
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:9/15/2014)... developed a technique for controlling the surface tension of ... door to a new generation of reconfigurable electronic circuits, ... fact that the oxide "skin" of the metal ... a surfactant, lowering the surface tension between the metal ... liquid metal alloy of gallium and indium. In base, ...
(Date:9/15/2014)... MORRISVILLE, NC (PRWEB) September 15, 2014 ... newly developed deep imaging OCT system for the optical ... , The EnvisuTM S4410 SDOCT for Contact ... measurements for standard and high complexity contact lens, IOL ... allows imaging of a complete contact lens immersed in ...
(Date:9/15/2014)... Texas , Sept. 15, 2014 The chemistry, ... in climate, says a new article published by the nonprofit ... , PhD, on climate change and its effects on the ... of an extensive study conducted by Dr. Ahmed in the ... China and has implications for the future of ...
(Date:9/15/2014)... , 15 de septiembre de 2014 La ... llevará a cabo del 12 al 18 de octubre. Como ... (PPTA) y de sus compañías miembro s, la IPAW ... concienciación mundial en torno a la colección de fuentes de ... de plasma al salvar y mejorar las vidas , ...
Breaking Biology Technology:Researchers control surface tension to manipulate liquid metals 2Bioptigen Introduces Deep Imaging OCT System for Contact Lens Metrology 2Tea Taste and Quality Affected by Climate Change 2Tea Taste and Quality Affected by Climate Change 3Tea Taste and Quality Affected by Climate Change 4La International Plasma Awareness Week será una celebración para los donantes 2La International Plasma Awareness Week será una celebración para los donantes 3
... (Nasdaq: ONXX ) today announced that it ... on Thursday, June 26, at,10:45 a.m. Eastern Time. ... presentation on our website at:, http://www.onyx-pharm.com/wt/page/event_calendar ... on 15 minutes early in order to,register and ...
... in London on Friday, June 20, 2008, NEW ... of the,leading plaintiffs, litigation law firms in America, filed ... a New York City Fire,Department Emergency Medical Technician whose ... EMT Ernest Armstead, was one,of the many brave responders ...
... Calif., June 19 The,Fifth Annual Healthcare Unbound ... Innovation (TCBI), will feature the coming together of,consumer ... help manage,diseases. The Conference will take place at ... will include a diverse representation of the many,business ...
Cached Biology Technology:Weitz & Luxenberg Files Seroquel Diabetes Lawsuit Against AstraZeneca 2Fifth Annual Healthcare Unbound Conference to Focus on Remote Monitoring, Home Telehealth & eHealth for Disease Management & Wellness Promotion 2Fifth Annual Healthcare Unbound Conference to Focus on Remote Monitoring, Home Telehealth & eHealth for Disease Management & Wellness Promotion 3
(Date:9/15/2014)... the subsequent rapid decrease in the water level of ... square kilometres of new, fertile land in eastern Finland. ... researchers has studied the role that the decrease in ... and humans. After dramatic shifts in the waterways, human ... rise to a new, innovative culture. This stemmed from ...
(Date:9/15/2014)... weighing as much as 170 tons, the blue whale is ... heaviest living thing ever seen on Earth. So there,s no ... fish larvae, which measure millimeters in length and tip the ... Not so fast, says L. Mahadevan, the Lola England de ... and of Physics. , Using simple hydrodynamics, a team ...
(Date:9/15/2014)... cardiovascular disease (CVD) claims 17 million lives each year, ... 9.4 million. 1 New research presented by international ... Montpellier, France on September 15, 2014, suggests that milk ... , At the Milk and Dairy Products in ... risk for hypertension and CVD was examined by Dr. ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):The creation of the Vuoksi River preceded a significant cultural shift 2The science behind swimming 2The science behind swimming 3Dairy consumption linked to lower blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk 2
... research into cheetah cub survival has refuted the theory that ... cannot coexist in conservation areas. The study, published in the ... Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park were seven times more likely to survive ... found to be the cubs, main predatory threat. Previously, ...
... MA -- Researchers at MIT and Brigham and Women,s ... of intestinal stem cells, then stimulate them to develop ... intestinal cells. Using these cells, scientists could develop and ... colitis. The small intestine, like most other body ...
... approach to mapping how proteins interact with each other, ... aid in the design of new drugs for diseases ... artificial amino acids, the Salk scientists determine the detailed ... the molecule that turns it on. The switch--corticotrophin releasing ...
Cached Biology News:Researchers unlock a new means of growing intestinal stem cells 2Researchers unlock a new means of growing intestinal stem cells 3Salk scientists crack riddle of important drug target 2Salk scientists crack riddle of important drug target 3
... Prostaglandin F2α isopropyl ester (15(R)-17-phenyl trinor ... isomer containing both a double bond ... hydroxyl group at C-15. Similar to ... is a potential impurity in most ...
ACS Reagent Grade C 19 H 14 O 5 S Formula Weight: 354.38 PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS Form: Rust/red crystalline powder Clarity of Solution: Passes test Visual Transition Interval: pH 6.8 - Yellow pH 8.2...
... Mouse Anti Nop1p/Fibrillarin (monoclonal) ... nucleolar protein of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces ... is essential for yeast viability and ... human homologue of Nop1p is fibrillarin ...
... G bind specifically to Fc regions of ... G conjugates are commonly used as affinity ... subtypes from serum, hybridoma ascites fluids, tissue ... reagents are also commonly used to capture ...
Biology Products: