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Engineer making rechargeable batteries with layered nanomaterials
Date:1/16/2013

lms to create the negative electrode of a lithium-ion cell and then studied the charge and discharge characteristics of this rechargeable battery. They found the graphene films grown on copper did not cycle the lithium ions and the battery capacity was negligible. But graphene grown on nickel showed improved performance because it was able to store and release lithium ions more efficiently.

"We believe that this behavior occurs because sheets of graphene on nickel are relatively thick near the grain boundaries and stacked in a well-defined manner -- called Bernal Stacking -- which provides multiple sites for easy uptake and release of lithium ions as the battery is discharged and charged," Singh said.

In a second research project, the researchers created tungsten disulfide nanosheets that were approximately 10 layers thick. Starting with bulk tungsten disulfide powder -- which is a type of dry lubricant used in the automotive industry -- the team was able to separate atomic layer thick sheets of tungsten disulfide in a strong acid solution. This simple method made it possible to produce sheets in large quantities. Much like graphene, tungsten disulfide also has a layered atomic structure, but the individual layers are three atoms thick.

The researchers found that these acid-treated tungsten disulfide sheets could also store and release lithium ions but in a different way. The lithium is stored through a conversion reaction in which tungsten disulfide dissociates to form tungsten and lithium sulfide as the cell is discharged. Unlike graphene, this reaction involves the transfer of at least two electrons per tungsten atom. This is important because researchers have long disregarded such compounds as battery anodes because of the difficulty associated with adding lithium to these materials, Singh said. It is only recently that the conversion reaction-based battery anodes have gained popularity.

"We also realize that tungsten disulfid
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Contact: Gurpreet Singh
gurpreet@k-state.edu
785-532-7085
Kansas State University
Source:Eurekalert

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