Navigation Links
Despite claims, UK did not gas Iraqis in the 1920s, new research finds
Date:2/5/2010

It has passed as fact among historians, journalists and politicians, and has been recounted everywhere from tourist guidebooks to the floor of the U.S. Congress: British forces used chemical weapons on Iraqis just after World War I.

But that claim has never been fully squared with the historical record, says R. M. Douglas, a historian at Colgate University. According to Douglas's research, forthcoming in the December issue of The Journal of Modern History, no such incident ever occurred.

Allegations of chemical bombings by the British erupted into the public sphere during the run up to the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003. Iraq's history of chemical weapons did not start with Saddam Hussein's gas attack on the Kurds, scholars and critics asserted. It was Great Britain when it controlled the region under League of Nations mandate in the 1920s that first used chemical weapons in the region to quell Arab uprisings. Many scholars went so far as to root Arab distrust of the West in Britain's brutal chemical attacks.

Douglas, however, finds that these claimsoft repeated in books, newspapers and political speechesrest on very shaky foundations.

The first blunt assertion of British chemical weapons use in Iraq comes from a 1986 essay by historian Charles Townshend. In his essay Townshend refers to a 1921 letter penned by J.A. Webster, an official at the British Air Ministry. In Townshend's description, Webster wrote to the British Colonial Office, the overseer of the Mesopotamian occupation, that tear gas shells had been used against Arab rebels with "excellent moral effect."

Douglas's research, however, reveals that Webster was wrong. The army had asked permission to use gas shells, but had not yet employed them in the field. And contrary to Townshend's description of the letter, Webster's much-quoted reference to an "excellent moral effect" represented "the Air Ministry's estimation of what gas bombs dropped from air
'/>"/>

Contact: Kevin Stacey
kstacey@press.uchicago.edu
773-834-0386
University of Chicago Press Journals
Source:Eurekalert

Page: 1 2 3 4

Related biology technology :

1. UK Based Machinery Manufacturer, SEPHA, Thrives Despite Downturn
2. Despite claims, UK did not gas Iraqis in the 1920s, new research finds
3. Despite claims, UK did not gas Iraqis in the 1920s, new research finds
4. Hypertension Drug Market Will Experience Only Modest Annual Decline Through 2018, Despite Generic Erosion Of Many Branded Agents
5. European Airports Actively Engaging on Reducing CO2, Despite the Crisis
6. Web of Science(R) Renewals Remain Strong Despite Tough Economic Climate
7. 2009 Pharma ChemOutsourcing Show Attendance Up an Astounding 60% Despite Current Recession
8. Low Occurrence of Severe Cardiac Side Effects Despite Extensive Prior Doxorubicin Treatment Reported in Pixantrone Pivotal Trial
9. Healthy Advice Networks Achieves Strong Growth Despite Challenging Economy
10. Global Confidence in Innovation Holds Despite Economy
11. Despite Decline in Share of Global Output, U.S. Science Impact Still Strong, Says Thomson Reuters
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:5/21/2015)... 2015 Imagine being able to ... those of others. Being able to read faces and ... people to anticipate their thoughts and actions like never ... feelings to create unique abstract paintings and video, or, ... inside a first-person-shooter as it creates action, dialog, and ...
(Date:5/21/2015)... 20, 2015 Research and Markets ... the "2015 Global Survey on Flow Cytometry ... The primary goal of this research is ... and reagents. Key information the survey seeks to ... flow cytometers, predominantly used applications for flow cytometers, ...
(Date:5/20/2015)... , May 20, 2015 Research and Markets ... of the "Top Technologies in HW_Technical Insights" ... of this report evaluated technology trends in the Health ... that are likely to have an impact in the ... analysis of the top 10 health and wellness technologies ...
(Date:5/20/2015)... , May 20, 2015  Health eCareers, the ... healthcare organizations with job seekers looking for the ... a new mobile and online tool dedicated exclusively ... industry. SHIFT enables employers to quickly ... travel nursing, per diem and other temporary positions, ...
Breaking Biology Technology:5 Days to Meet ARGUS - The World's First Contactless Emotions Scanner 2Global Survey on Flow Cytometry Adoption Trends 2015 2Top Technologies in the Health and Wellness Industry 2015 2Health eCareers Launches SHIFT Mobile and Online Tool to Match Healthcare Employers with Temporary Job Seekers 2Health eCareers Launches SHIFT Mobile and Online Tool to Match Healthcare Employers with Temporary Job Seekers 3
... June 17 Schering-Plough,Corporation (NYSE: SGP ) is ... 2008 second quarter on Monday, July 21, 2008., ... conduct a conference,call to review results for the 2008 ... members of management will,host the conference call., To ...
... 17 Mergent, Inc., administrator for the,HealthShares(TM) Indexes, ... Exchange Traded Funds, today announced the quarterly,rebalancing of ... and,deleted in the Indexes effective before the opening ... HealthShares(TM) Autoimmune-Inflammation Index (HHA), Drop, ...
... NEW HAVEN, Conn., June 17 BioXcel ... ASDO Consulting Group,(ASDO), a leading consulting company ... global business analytics company, will combine forces ... of,services. These include business analytics to support,licensing/due-diligence, ...
Cached Biology Technology:Schering-Plough Schedules Conference Call and Webcast for 2008 Second Quarter Earnings 2Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 2Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 3Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 4Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 5Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 6Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 7Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 8Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 9Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 10Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 11Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 12Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 13Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 14Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 15Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 16Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 17Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 18Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 19Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 20Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 21Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 22Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 23Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 24Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 25Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 26Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 27Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 28Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 29Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 30Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 31Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 32Mergent, Inc. Announces Quarterly Rebalancing of HealthShares(TM) Indexes 33BioXcel Expands Its Capability in Business Analytics Support Services 2
(Date:5/14/2015)... 14, 2015 Research and Markets ( ... "Fingerprint Sensors Market in Smart Mobile Devices " ... that 2014 was a watershed year for fingerprint sensors ... ,Apple Pay,. Apple gave fingerprint sensors a raison d,etre ... Fingerprint sensors are a must-have feature in flagship smartphones. ...
(Date:5/11/2015)... Curemark LLC, a privately held drug research ... Phase III double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to ... all children ages 3-8 with Autism. Previously, Curemark announced ... blinded clinical trial for CM-AT in children ages 3-8 ... enzyme chymotrypsin. This new trial will help determine whether ...
(Date:5/6/2015)... 6, 2015 LifeBEAM, a developer of bio-sensing ... announced today that they will expand their partnership in ... bio-sensing cycling helmet and the first joint project between ... colors in order to give cyclists more style choices ... LifeBEAM and Lazer announced their plan to release a ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Global Smart Mobile Devices Fingerprint Sensors Market 2015-2019: Key Vendors are Authentec, Validity Sensors, Fingerprint Cards, Next Biometrics Group. IDEX, and Qualcomm 2Curemark, LLC, Launches New Phase III Trial in Expanded Population of Children with Autism 2LifeBEAM and Lazer Announce Expanded Partnership in Bio-Sensing Sports Gear 2LifeBEAM and Lazer Announce Expanded Partnership in Bio-Sensing Sports Gear 3
... a large epidemiologic study, researchers at UCLA,s Jonsson Cancer ... are at higher risk of having retinoblastoma, a malignant ... under six. The study, which focused on babies ... fathers were at greater risk for retinoblastoma, as were ...
... can encounter a host of health complications. The added weight ... at least initially. In a new study published in ... a University of Iowa researcher compared the weight and height ... born to normal-weight mothers. Contrary to expectations, babies ...
... -- A commercial vaccine for cattle can effectively reduce levels ... a Kansas State University study has found. The vaccine is ... doses, which can help cut costs for the beef industry. ... investigator on a project that researched the effectiveness of products ...
Cached Biology News:US-born Latinas at great risk of having babies with retinoblastoma 2Infants of overweight mothers grow more slowly 2Infants of overweight mothers grow more slowly 3A new line of defense: Researchers find cattle vaccine works to reduce E. coli O157:H7 2
... cultured in DMEM with 4 mM L-glutamine medium ... In order to keep the antigens in ... The cells are arrayed on a 12-well ... surface specifically treated to enhance cellular attachment and ...
... DMEM and harvested at the log phase of ... in their native forms, cells were fixed in ... 12-well (5 mm) adhesive coated slide, with each ... and to minimize background staining. Each well ...
... in DMEM and harvested at the log phase ... antigens in their native forms, cells were fixed ... a 12-well (5 mm) adhesive coated slide, with ... attachment and to minimize background staining. Each ...
...
Biology Products: