Navigation Links
Despite claims, UK did not gas Iraqis in the 1920s, new research finds
Date:2/5/2010

It has passed as fact among historians, journalists and politicians, and has been recounted everywhere from tourist guidebooks to the floor of the U.S. Congress: British forces used chemical weapons on Iraqis just after World War I.

But that claim has never been fully squared with the historical record, says R. M. Douglas, a historian at Colgate University. According to Douglas's research, forthcoming in the December issue of The Journal of Modern History, no such incident ever occurred.

Allegations of chemical bombings by the British erupted into the public sphere during the run up to the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003. Iraq's history of chemical weapons did not start with Saddam Hussein's gas attack on the Kurds, scholars and critics asserted. It was Great Britain when it controlled the region under League of Nations mandate in the 1920s that first used chemical weapons in the region to quell Arab uprisings. Many scholars went so far as to root Arab distrust of the West in Britain's brutal chemical attacks.

Douglas, however, finds that these claimsoft repeated in books, newspapers and political speechesrest on very shaky foundations.

The first blunt assertion of British chemical weapons use in Iraq comes from a 1986 essay by historian Charles Townshend. In his essay Townshend refers to a 1921 letter penned by J.A. Webster, an official at the British Air Ministry. In Townshend's description, Webster wrote to the British Colonial Office, the overseer of the Mesopotamian occupation, that tear gas shells had been used against Arab rebels with "excellent moral effect."

Douglas's research, however, reveals that Webster was wrong. The army had asked permission to use gas shells, but had not yet employed them in the field. And contrary to Townshend's description of the letter, Webster's much-quoted reference to an "excellent moral effect" represented "the Air Ministry's estimation of what gas bombs dropped from air
'/>"/>

Contact: Kevin Stacey
kstacey@press.uchicago.edu
773-834-0386
University of Chicago Press Journals
Source:Eurekalert

Page: 1 2 3 4

Related biology technology :

1. UK Based Machinery Manufacturer, SEPHA, Thrives Despite Downturn
2. Despite claims, UK did not gas Iraqis in the 1920s, new research finds
3. Despite claims, UK did not gas Iraqis in the 1920s, new research finds
4. Hypertension Drug Market Will Experience Only Modest Annual Decline Through 2018, Despite Generic Erosion Of Many Branded Agents
5. European Airports Actively Engaging on Reducing CO2, Despite the Crisis
6. Web of Science(R) Renewals Remain Strong Despite Tough Economic Climate
7. 2009 Pharma ChemOutsourcing Show Attendance Up an Astounding 60% Despite Current Recession
8. Low Occurrence of Severe Cardiac Side Effects Despite Extensive Prior Doxorubicin Treatment Reported in Pixantrone Pivotal Trial
9. Healthy Advice Networks Achieves Strong Growth Despite Challenging Economy
10. Global Confidence in Innovation Holds Despite Economy
11. Despite Decline in Share of Global Output, U.S. Science Impact Still Strong, Says Thomson Reuters
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:8/27/2015)... 27, 2015 /PRNewswire/ - BIOREM Inc. (TSXV: BRM) ("Biorem" or "the ... ended June 30, 2015. Biorem,s complete second quarter financial statements and ... FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS: in ,000,s except earnings per shareThree-months ended , Six -months ... , 2015 , 2014 Revenue , 4,709 ... 4,433 Gross profit , 1,656 , 56 ...
(Date:8/27/2015)... ... 27, 2015 , ... Inc. Magazine released its annual list of the 5,000 ... in growth for the three years through 2014. Being named to the Inc. 5000 ... in the country. , “We are thrilled to make the Inc. 5000 list ...
(Date:8/27/2015)... ... August 27, 2015 , ... ... presented new data on the relationship of genetics and hypertension at the ... Heart Disease in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The event, which boasts an extensive ...
(Date:8/26/2015)... 2015  Roka Bioscience, Inc. (NASDAQ: ROKA ), ... solutions for the detection of foodborne pathogens, today announced ... Sidoti & Company Emerging Growth Conference on September 2 ... the New York Marriott Marquis. A ... the investor relations section of Roka Bioscience,s website at ...
Breaking Biology Technology:BIOREM Reports $718,000 Net Earnings for the Second Quarter 2BIOREM Reports $718,000 Net Earnings for the Second Quarter 3iLab Solutions Named to 2015 Inc. 5000 List 2iLab Solutions Named to 2015 Inc. 5000 List 3Proove Biosciences Presents Ground-Breaking Data on Genetics and Heart Disease at 20th World Congress on Heart Disease 2Proove Biosciences Presents Ground-Breaking Data on Genetics and Heart Disease at 20th World Congress on Heart Disease 3
... Dynamic, thorough, and robustly qualified are a few ... Consultant, Philippe Vitat, who brings with him expertise and an ... as a certified medical writer and editor since 2001 and ... medical education by the International Biographical Center in Cambridge, ...
... ... The Chinese Biopharmaceutical Association-USA (CBA) announced today that it ... Maryland, US. ,The event will highlight current breakthroughs, new ... develop a platform for communication and collaboration among biopharmaceutical companies, ...
... an interview with a researcher, please contact the Communications and ... tip. For more information on ORNL and its research and ... If you have a general media-related question or comment, you ... MILITARY - Intelligent intelligence . . . ...
Cached Biology Technology:Highly Regarded Medical Writer Joins Avant Healthcare Marketing Team 2Chinese Biopharmaceutical Association Holds 15th Annual Conference in Rockville, MD, June 12 - 13 2Chinese Biopharmaceutical Association Holds 15th Annual Conference in Rockville, MD, June 12 - 13 3Story tips from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory May 2010 2Story tips from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory May 2010 3
(Date:8/5/2015)... 2015 Transparency Market Research has ... - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and ... recognition is forecast to reach US$ 2,671.8 Mn by ... surveillance systems by civil and government agencies. This is ... terrorist activities across the globe that would elevate the ...
(Date:8/4/2015)... 04, 2015 ... announced the addition of the "Digital ... Service), Sub-Segment (Computer Forensics, Network Forensics, Mobile ... Service, Vertical and Region - Global Forecast ... By Component (Hardware, Software, and ...
(Date:8/3/2015)... SAN JOSE, Calif. , Aug. 3, 2015 /PRNewswire/ ... developer of human interface solutions, today announced that members ... investment community at the Pacific Crest Global Technology Leadership ... Mountain Time. The conference will be held at the ... The presentation may include forward-looking information. ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Facial Recognition Market Expected to Reach US$ 2.67 Bn by 2022, at a CAGR of 9.5% From 2015 - 2022: Transparency Market Research 2Facial Recognition Market Expected to Reach US$ 2.67 Bn by 2022, at a CAGR of 9.5% From 2015 - 2022: Transparency Market Research 3Facial Recognition Market Expected to Reach US$ 2.67 Bn by 2022, at a CAGR of 9.5% From 2015 - 2022: Transparency Market Research 4Facial Recognition Market Expected to Reach US$ 2.67 Bn by 2022, at a CAGR of 9.5% From 2015 - 2022: Transparency Market Research 5Facial Recognition Market Expected to Reach US$ 2.67 Bn by 2022, at a CAGR of 9.5% From 2015 - 2022: Transparency Market Research 6Digital Forensics Market - The Market Represents a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 11.3% From 2015 to 2020 2
... season coming up soon, egg consumption is expected to rise temporarily. ... of eggs they can? "Parasites such as fowl mites that ... more," says Bradley A. Mullens , a professor of ... to boost egg production is to rid the hens of these ...
... bacteria in the genus Rickettsia spread through a population of ... pest of global importance. Infected insects lay more eggs, develop ... to their uninfected peers. The discoveries were made by ... in the April 8 issue of the journal Science ...
... known to favor the evolution of a variety of traits, ... changes in metabolism and feeding behavior. Now researchers reporting online ... Press publication, have added sleeplessness to that list. "Cave-adapted ... Borowsky of New York University. "In some ways, their sleep ...
Cached Biology News:UC Riverside entomologists propose pesticide-free method to increase egg production 2Instant evolution in whiteflies: Just add bacteria 2Instant evolution in whiteflies: Just add bacteria 3Instant evolution in whiteflies: Just add bacteria 4Through evolution, cavefish have lost sleep 2
QCPN...
... standard of the Axima range, the ... mass accuracy, resolution, sensitivity and mass ... both linear and reflectron time-of-flight analysis. ... enables the generation of seamless PSD, ...
... The new MALDI O-TOF creates a new ... an orthogonal platform that has been licensed ... University of Manitoba. , As the first ... design and collisional cooling, the prOTOF 2000 ...
Rat Lung Fibroblasts (RLF) (>500,000 cells)...
Biology Products: