Navigation Links
Despite claims, UK did not gas Iraqis in the 1920s, new research finds
Date:2/5/2010

It has passed as fact among historians, journalists and politicians, and has been recounted everywhere from tourist guidebooks to the floor of the U.S. Congress: British forces used chemical weapons on Iraqis just after World War I.

But that claim has never been fully squared with the historical record, says R. M. Douglas, a historian at Colgate University. According to Douglas's research, forthcoming in the December issue of The Journal of Modern History, no such incident ever occurred.

Allegations of chemical bombings by the British erupted into the public sphere during the run up to the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003. Iraq's history of chemical weapons did not start with Saddam Hussein's gas attack on the Kurds, scholars and critics asserted. It was Great Britain when it controlled the region under League of Nations mandate in the 1920s that first used chemical weapons in the region to quell Arab uprisings. Many scholars went so far as to root Arab distrust of the West in Britain's brutal chemical attacks.

Douglas, however, finds that these claimsoft repeated in books, newspapers and political speechesrest on very shaky foundations.

The first blunt assertion of British chemical weapons use in Iraq comes from a 1986 essay by historian Charles Townshend. In his essay Townshend refers to a 1921 letter penned by J.A. Webster, an official at the British Air Ministry. In Townshend's description, Webster wrote to the British Colonial Office, the overseer of the Mesopotamian occupation, that tear gas shells had been used against Arab rebels with "excellent moral effect."

Douglas's research, however, reveals that Webster was wrong. The army had asked permission to use gas shells, but had not yet employed them in the field. And contrary to Townshend's description of the letter, Webster's much-quoted reference to an "excellent moral effect" represented "the Air Ministry's estimation of what gas bombs dropped from air
'/>"/>

Contact: Kevin Stacey
kstacey@press.uchicago.edu
773-834-0386
University of Chicago Press Journals
Source:Eurekalert

Page: 1 2 3 4

Related biology technology :

1. UK Based Machinery Manufacturer, SEPHA, Thrives Despite Downturn
2. Despite claims, UK did not gas Iraqis in the 1920s, new research finds
3. Despite claims, UK did not gas Iraqis in the 1920s, new research finds
4. Hypertension Drug Market Will Experience Only Modest Annual Decline Through 2018, Despite Generic Erosion Of Many Branded Agents
5. European Airports Actively Engaging on Reducing CO2, Despite the Crisis
6. Web of Science(R) Renewals Remain Strong Despite Tough Economic Climate
7. 2009 Pharma ChemOutsourcing Show Attendance Up an Astounding 60% Despite Current Recession
8. Low Occurrence of Severe Cardiac Side Effects Despite Extensive Prior Doxorubicin Treatment Reported in Pixantrone Pivotal Trial
9. Healthy Advice Networks Achieves Strong Growth Despite Challenging Economy
10. Global Confidence in Innovation Holds Despite Economy
11. Despite Decline in Share of Global Output, U.S. Science Impact Still Strong, Says Thomson Reuters
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:7/13/2014)... discovery 30 years ago of soccer-ball-shaped carbon molecules called ... Now, there appears to be a new ball on ... and Tsinghua University in China have shown that a ... cage similar to a carbon buckyball. It,s the first ... matter of speculationdoes indeed exist. , "This is the ...
(Date:7/12/2014)... July 12, 2014 This ... reagents used in the life science industry. ... life science reagents market towards remarkable growth. ... and providers of life science reagents. , ... http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/life-sciences-reagents-analytical-reagents.html . , The global life ...
(Date:7/11/2014)... , July 11, 2014 , Not ... in, into or from any jurisdiction where to do so ... jurisdiction.  Shire plc ("Shire" or the "Company") (LSE: ... this afternoon.  Shire confirms it has held a meeting with ... by Shire without the prior agreement or approval of AbbVie. ...
(Date:7/11/2014)... BCC Research ( http://www.bccresearch.com ) reveals in its ... TECHNOLOGY: GLOBAL MARKETS , the global market for digital ... in 2013. This is estimated to grow to $490 ... rate (CAGR) of 28.6%. , New digital PCR technology ... within the broader PCR field. The opportunities presented by ...
Breaking Biology Technology:Researchers discover boron 'buckyball' 2Researchers discover boron 'buckyball' 3Transparency Market Research: Life Science Reagents Market- PCR Reagent Kits, Cell and Tissue Culture, Flow Cytometry, Electrophoresis and Chromatography 2Transparency Market Research: Life Science Reagents Market- PCR Reagent Kits, Cell and Tissue Culture, Flow Cytometry, Electrophoresis and Chromatography 3Shire plc - Statement re: Media Speculation 2Global Market for Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction Technology to Reach $490 Billion by 2018; Equipment Sector Accounts for the Fastest Growing Segment With 33% CAGR 2Global Market for Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction Technology to Reach $490 Billion by 2018; Equipment Sector Accounts for the Fastest Growing Segment With 33% CAGR 3
... Annual Revenues Up, Net Loss Down, Cash Position Strong, as Pipeline ... ... (Nasdaq: EXEL ) today reported financial results for the full,year and ... $113.5 million, compared to $98.7 million in,2006. The increase in revenues for ...
... PALO ALTO, Calif., Feb. 14 Telik, Inc.,(Nasdaq: ... webcast will,be held on Thursday, February 21, 2008 at ... release earlier that day of the company,s,financial results for ... The conference call will be accessible via Telik,s ...
... Executives from Senexis,and O2H, both located in Cambridge, ... synthetic and computational chemistry services to the drug,discovery ... "We believe our collaboration with O2H leverages the ... search for new,therapeutics to treat ageing-related diseases by ...
Cached Biology Technology:Exelixis Announces Full Year and Fourth Quarter 2007 Financial Results 2Exelixis Announces Full Year and Fourth Quarter 2007 Financial Results 3Exelixis Announces Full Year and Fourth Quarter 2007 Financial Results 4Exelixis Announces Full Year and Fourth Quarter 2007 Financial Results 5Exelixis Announces Full Year and Fourth Quarter 2007 Financial Results 6Exelixis Announces Full Year and Fourth Quarter 2007 Financial Results 7Exelixis Announces Full Year and Fourth Quarter 2007 Financial Results 8Exelixis Announces Full Year and Fourth Quarter 2007 Financial Results 9Senexis and O2H (Oxygen Healthcare) Announce Medicinal Chemistry Collaboration 2
(Date:7/11/2014)... 11, 2014 Research and Markets ... Technology Market - Industry Analysis Size Share Growth Trends ... http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20130307/600769 ... created a need for high level security in both ... authentication such as username and passwords, tokens etc. are ...
(Date:7/10/2014)... Albuquerque, and other major cities in New Mexico, nearly ... municipal wastewater rather than precious potable water supplies. Across ... of all golf courses receive treated effluent. Reusing the ... Additionally, golf courses and homeowners alike fertilize their lawns ... is nitrate. A New Mexico State University turfgrass expert ...
(Date:7/10/2014)... June 30, 2014  Aware, Inc. (NASDAQ: ... services, previously announced on June 26, 2014 that its ... of $1.75 per share, or approximately $40 million in ... 10, 2014 and a payment date of July 24, ... it had set an ex-dividend date for this special ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):International Biometrics Technology Market - Industry Analysis Size Share Growth Trends and Forecast to 2019 2'Tailored' water -- the latest in lawn care 2NASDAQ Sets Ex-Dividend Date for Aware, Inc.'s Special Cash Dividend of $1.75 Per Share 2
... Bethesda, MD FASEB MARC (Minority Access to ... recipients for the 19th Annual International Conference on ... the 10th European Conference on Computational Biology (ECCB), ... Computational Biology (ISCB) in Vienna, Austria from July ...
... Forest Service,s Pacific Northwest Research Station presents summaries of ... carbon and forest products to lichens and invasive species. ... Alaska, 2004-2008, highlights key findings from the most recent ... Analysis (FIA) unit. Written by a group of 15 ...
... the authors, readers and editors of the Pensoft journal ... majority of respondents (84 %) are willing to publish their ... use, share or integrate with other data" said Dr Lyubomir ... incentives to publish data, the scientists mentioned that ...
Cached Biology News:New report highlights diversity and value of Alaska's coastal forests 2Data publishing policies and guidelines for biodiversity data by Pensoft 2
Anti Autotaxin /ENPP2 , - (Rabbit)...
...
... 2-Deoxy-2-(3-methyl-3-nitrosoureido)-D-glucopyranose Pale yellow solid. An ... a nitric oxide donor in pancreatic ... bacteria. Causes DNA alkylation and DNA ... Purity: ≥95% by HPLC. Soluble in ...
... a silica based spin filter membrane to isolate ... DNA band is cut from an agarose gel ... The gel slice is melted irreversibly in a ... bound to the silica spin filter membrane and ...
Biology Products: