Navigation Links
Despite claims, UK did not gas Iraqis in the 1920s, new research finds
Date:12/16/2009

craft, if used, could be expected to achieve, rather than what gas shells had already achieved," Douglas writes.

In fact, shortly after receiving Webster's letter, the Colonial Office sought clarification of the bombing claim from Army General Headquarters in Baghdad. General Headquarters reported, contrary to Webster, that "gas shells have not been used hitherto against [Iraqi] tribesmen either by aeroplanes or by artillery."

Despite the evidence Webster's letter was wrong, it still became the basis for claims of British chemical use. From there the story mutated and spread.

"In some versions, the Royal Air Force is alleged to have dropped gas bombs from aeroplanes against rebellious Iraqis, in the course of what was euphemistically known as 'air policing,'" Dr. Douglas writes. "In others, the British Army is held to be the responsible party, employing gas-filled artillery shells."

Though the specifics differed, each allegation treated the incident as a matter of unassailable fact. Douglas's research suggests it is anything but.

THE WILL, BUT NOT THE WAY

Perhaps lending a measure of credence to allegations of British chemical use in Iraq is the fact that there were high-profile British ministers who very much wanted to use them.

But wanting to use them does not mean they did.

"[T]here had been two brief periods in 1920-21 during which the use of tear gas in the course of military operations had been the stated policy of the British Government," Douglas writes. "In both cases practical difficulties rather than moral qualms prevented their use."

Before 1920, the British War Cabinet had expressly denied requests by field commanders to use tear gas in occupied Mesopotamia. That changed in June 1920, when an organized Arab rebellion erupted. Winston Churchill, then War Secretary and a vocal advocate of nonlethal gas use, gave commanders in the field permission to use "existing stocks" of t
'/>"/>

Contact: Kevin Stacey
kstacey@press.uchicago.edu
773-834-0386
University of Chicago Press Journals
Source:Eurekalert

Page: 1 2 3 4

Related biology technology :

1. Despite claims, UK did not gas Iraqis in the 1920s, new research finds
2. Hypertension Drug Market Will Experience Only Modest Annual Decline Through 2018, Despite Generic Erosion Of Many Branded Agents
3. European Airports Actively Engaging on Reducing CO2, Despite the Crisis
4. Web of Science(R) Renewals Remain Strong Despite Tough Economic Climate
5. 2009 Pharma ChemOutsourcing Show Attendance Up an Astounding 60% Despite Current Recession
6. Low Occurrence of Severe Cardiac Side Effects Despite Extensive Prior Doxorubicin Treatment Reported in Pixantrone Pivotal Trial
7. Healthy Advice Networks Achieves Strong Growth Despite Challenging Economy
8. Global Confidence in Innovation Holds Despite Economy
9. Despite Decline in Share of Global Output, U.S. Science Impact Still Strong, Says Thomson Reuters
10. Fadel Partners Announces 13% Growth Despite IT Services Industry Downtrend
11. Despite Economic Woes, Physician Compensation Increases
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:1/15/2014)... NC (PRWEB) January 15, 2014 DTS ... to its Online Web Portal for Life Science organizations who ... to specify the subject matter of their documents in advance ... will help reduce time-to-delivery of translations, often a critical factor ...
(Date:1/14/2014)... Doylestown, PA (PRWEB) January 14, 2014 Date: ... p.m. , Location: Warrington Country Club, 1360 Almshouse Road, Warrington, ... only national nonprofit organization solely dedicated to finding a cure ... those affected worldwide, will host its annual Crystal Ball on ...
(Date:1/14/2014)... EquitiesIQ, a leading informational research provider, ... is an emerging biomedical company acquiring, developing, manufacturing, and ... , Free report download: http://equitiesiq.com/reports/alliqua/ , In ... team and Board, which launched the company’s new strategy ...
(Date:1/14/2014)... , Jan. 14, 2014  RXi Pharmaceuticals Corporation ... developing and commercializing innovative therapies addressing major unmet ... it received the Notice of Allowance from the ... unique self-delivering RNAi compounds (sd-rxRNA®), for the treatment ...
Breaking Biology Technology:DTS Improves Efficiency for Life Science Document Translations 2Hepatitis B Foundation to Host Annual Crystal Ball Gala 2EquitiesIQ Initiates Coverage of Alliqua, Inc. 2EquitiesIQ Initiates Coverage of Alliqua, Inc. 3RXi Pharmaceuticals Receives US Notice of Allowance for a Key Patent Relating to its Self-Delivering Technology with sd-rxRNAs targeting CTGF, including RXI-109, for the Treatment of Fibrotic Disorders 2RXi Pharmaceuticals Receives US Notice of Allowance for a Key Patent Relating to its Self-Delivering Technology with sd-rxRNAs targeting CTGF, including RXI-109, for the Treatment of Fibrotic Disorders 3
... DETROIT, Oct. 23 Caraco Pharmaceutical,Laboratories, Ltd. (Amex: ... and,first six months of Fiscal 2009 of $122.2 million ... $76.8 million, respectively,for the corresponding periods of Fiscal 2008. ... periods of Fiscal 2008. Pre-tax income,grew to $12.3 million ...
... MIAMI, Oct. 23 NOVIS Pharmaceuticals, Inc. today,announced ... been,appointed Chairman of the Board. The appointment was ... meeting and is effective immediately., (Logo: ... to take on this role at NOVIS, and ...
... Ltd (BioWisdom),the market leader in delivering healthcare ... release of OmniViz,Visualization Software for Patent Specialists., ... in competitive business and,technical intelligence analyses to ... can turn the analysis of thousands of,patents ...
Cached Biology Technology:Caraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd. Reports Results for the Second Quarter and First Six Months of Fiscal 2009 2Caraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd. Reports Results for the Second Quarter and First Six Months of Fiscal 2009 3Caraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd. Reports Results for the Second Quarter and First Six Months of Fiscal 2009 4Caraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd. Reports Results for the Second Quarter and First Six Months of Fiscal 2009 5Caraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd. Reports Results for the Second Quarter and First Six Months of Fiscal 2009 6Caraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd. Reports Results for the Second Quarter and First Six Months of Fiscal 2009 7Caraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd. Reports Results for the Second Quarter and First Six Months of Fiscal 2009 8NOVIS Announces Appointment of John J. Arlotta as Chairman 2
(Date:4/17/2014)... study suggests that fish consumption advisories for expecting ... long-lived contaminants like persistent organic pollutants (POPs). ... researchers including University of Toronto Scarborough PhD student ... how different levels of environmental contamination, a mother,s ... in the body influenced exposure in her children. ...
(Date:4/17/2014)... release is available in German . ... to recognise objects; they also provide us with a continuous ... turn around, fall or sit still in a car ... trace on our retinas. Seemingly without effort, our brain calculates ... a stable position and a steady gaze during our own ...
(Date:4/17/2014)... The White House honored Clemson professor Rajendra Singh ... efforts to promote and expand solar deployment in ... the D. Houser Banks Professor of Electrical and ... Silicon Nanoelectronics, is considered a local hero leading ... and economic opportunity in solar power and driving ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Fish consumption advisories fail to cover all types of contaminants 2How vision makes sure that little fish do not get carried away 2How vision makes sure that little fish do not get carried away 3How vision makes sure that little fish do not get carried away 4White House honors Clemson professor as 'Champion of Change' for solar deployment 2
... PARK, Maryland A University of Maryland-led team of ... the impacts of climate change could affect civil conflicts. ... between conflict, socio-economic conditions and climate. They will use ... The U.S. Department of Defense is funding the ...
... rid of excess energy through the production of hydrogen. Biologists at ... absence of oxygen. For this, they need the messenger molecule nitric ... blood cells of humans. With colleagues at the UC Los Angeles, ... Haemoglobin an old protein in a new look ...
... into the human genome more readily in tumors than ... from the University of Maryland School of Medicine,s Institute ... from the Human Genome Project, the 1,000 Genomes Project ... phenomenon of lateral gene transfer (LGT), the transmission of ...
Cached Biology News:DoD-funded research: Can climate change heat up conflict? 2When green algae run out of air 2Bacterial DNA may integrate into human genome more readily in tumor tissue 2
DNase I (Deoxyribonuclease I) digests single- and double-stranded DNA to oligodeoxyribonucleotides. Ribonuclease activity has been reduced to non-detectable levels....
... strain containing an overproducing clone of M-MLV ... catalyzes the polymerization of DNA using template ... of large mRNAs, >10 kb, may be ... lower RNase H activity than AMV Reverse ...
... DNase is a preparation of deoxyribonuclease ... DNA to produce 3-hydroxyl oligonucleotides. This ... applications where maintaining the integrity of ... qualified for use with the Core ...
...
Biology Products: