Navigation Links
Despite claims, UK did not gas Iraqis in the 1920s, new research finds
Date:11/17/2009

It has passed as fact among historians, journalists and politicians, and has been recounted everywhere from tourist guidebooks to the floor of the U.S. Congress: British forces used chemical weapons on Iraqis just after World War I.

But that claim has never been fully squared with the historical record, says R. M. Douglas, a historian at Colgate University. According to Douglas's research, forthcoming in the December issue of The Journal of Modern History, no such incident ever occurred.

Allegations of chemical bombings by the British erupted into the public sphere during the run up to the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003. Iraq's history of chemical weapons did not start with Saddam Hussein's gas attack on the Kurds, scholars and critics asserted. It was Great Britain when it controlled the region under League of Nations mandate in the 1920s that first used chemical weapons in the region to quell Arab uprisings. Many scholars went so far as to root Arab distrust of the West in Britain's brutal chemical attacks.

Douglas, however, finds that these claimsoft repeated in books, newspapers and political speechesrest on very shaky foundations.

The first blunt assertion of British chemical weapons use in Iraq comes from a 1986 essay by historian Charles Townshend. In his essay Townshend refers to a 1921 letter penned by J.A. Webster, an official at the British Air Ministry. In Townshend's description, Webster wrote to the British Colonial Office, the overseer of the Mesopotamian occupation, that tear gas shells had been used against Arab rebels with "excellent moral effect."

Douglas's research, however, reveals that Webster was wrong. The army had asked permission to use gas shells, but had not yet employed them in the field. And contrary to Townshend's description of the letter, Webster's much-quoted reference to an "excellent moral effect" represented "the Air Ministry's estimation of what gas bombs dropped from air
'/>"/>

Contact: Kevin Stacey
kstacey@press.uchicago.edu
773-834-0386
University of Chicago Press Journals
Source:Eurekalert

Page: 1 2 3 4

Related biology technology :

1. Hypertension Drug Market Will Experience Only Modest Annual Decline Through 2018, Despite Generic Erosion Of Many Branded Agents
2. European Airports Actively Engaging on Reducing CO2, Despite the Crisis
3. Web of Science(R) Renewals Remain Strong Despite Tough Economic Climate
4. 2009 Pharma ChemOutsourcing Show Attendance Up an Astounding 60% Despite Current Recession
5. Low Occurrence of Severe Cardiac Side Effects Despite Extensive Prior Doxorubicin Treatment Reported in Pixantrone Pivotal Trial
6. Healthy Advice Networks Achieves Strong Growth Despite Challenging Economy
7. Global Confidence in Innovation Holds Despite Economy
8. Despite Decline in Share of Global Output, U.S. Science Impact Still Strong, Says Thomson Reuters
9. Fadel Partners Announces 13% Growth Despite IT Services Industry Downtrend
10. Despite Economic Woes, Physician Compensation Increases
11. Investment and Growth in US Medical Technology Industry Continues Despite Challenging Public Markets
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:12/24/2014)... Earlier this year in a June 24 ... the Adult Stem Cell Technology Center, LLC ( ASCTC ... appreciated unique property of adult tissue stem cells. ... in the Past, Important for the Future,” embodied the ... gave the address at the 4th World Congress on ...
(Date:12/24/2014)... December 23, 2014 The ... such as its definition, classification, application and ... specification, manufacturing process, and product cost structure. ... applications. The analysis also covers upstream raw ... industry development trend and proposals. In the ...
(Date:12/24/2014)... Dec. 23, 2014 China Biologic Products, ... a leading fully integrated plasma-based biopharmaceutical company in ... its majority-owned subsidiary, Shandong Taibang Biological Products Co. ... from the China Food and Drug Administration (the ... As previously disclosed in the Company,s public filings, ...
(Date:12/24/2014)...  Rock Creek Pharmaceuticals, Inc., (NASDAQ: RCPI ... Trial Application (CTA) with the United Kingdom,s ... regulatory approval to initiate clinical trials for the continued ... Contingent on the Company receiving CTA regulatory approval, the ... assess the safety, tolerability and dose escalation of Anatabine ...
Breaking Biology Technology:Adult Stem Cell Technology Center, LLC’s Director Sherley's Address on What’s Holding Back Regenerative Medicine Featured on Omics Group Website 2Adult Stem Cell Technology Center, LLC’s Director Sherley's Address on What’s Holding Back Regenerative Medicine Featured on Omics Group Website 3Adult Stem Cell Technology Center, LLC’s Director Sherley's Address on What’s Holding Back Regenerative Medicine Featured on Omics Group Website 4Worldwide Methyl Mercaptan Market 2015-2020 Forecasts on Development & Trends Now Available at ReportsnReports.com 2China Biologic Receives GMP Certification for New Coagulation Factor Facility 2China Biologic Receives GMP Certification for New Coagulation Factor Facility 3Rock Creek Pharmaceuticals Files Clinical Trial Application in the UK for Clinical Trials of Anatabine Citrate Formulations 2Rock Creek Pharmaceuticals Files Clinical Trial Application in the UK for Clinical Trials of Anatabine Citrate Formulations 3
... profound implications for nanoelectronic components. Researchers from the Nano-Science ... in collaboration with Japanese researchers, have shown how electrons ... between their motion and their attached magnetic field ... unprecedented control over the spin of electrons and may ...
... 21, 2011 Leading organizations understand the value of ... operational tactics across numerous functions. As pharmaceutical, biotechnology and ... must also evolve and develop new capabilities while refining ... " The Future of Market Research: Challenges ...
... Electronics researchers love graphene. A two-dimensional sheet of carbon ... electrons, which rocket through the material with 100 times ... devices will be challenging, say researchers at the National ... show that layering graphene on a substrate transforms its ...
Cached Biology Technology:Curved carbon for electronics of the future 2Role of Market Research Evolving to Take on a More Strategic Responsibility 2Real-world graphene devices may have a bumpy ride 2
(Date:12/19/2014)... 2014 Research and Markets ( ... "iPhone 5S Fingerprint Sensor - Apple/AuthenTec TMDR92 ... their offering. http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20130307/600769 ... in July 2012, Apple introduced the fingerprint reading ... the only device of Apple incorporating such a ...
(Date:12/17/2014)... Va. , Dec. 15, 2014 ... to make it easier to detect and prevent ... Today the agency started performing an ... capability will validate the authenticity of purchased microcircuits ... The new quality control measures will be conducted ...
(Date:12/15/2014)... --Research and Markets ( http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/87pph8/global_facial ) ... Facial Recognition Market 2015-2019" report to their ... Facial recognition is a technology used ... measures the overall facial feature of a person ... distance between eyes. Facial recognition is used for ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):iPhone 5S Fingerprint Sensor - Apple/AuthenTec TMDR92 & Sapphire - Technology Report 2Defense Logistics Agency Launches DNA Marking Capability to Strengthen Microcircuit Supply Chain 2Defense Logistics Agency Launches DNA Marking Capability to Strengthen Microcircuit Supply Chain 3Global Facial Recognition Market 2015-2019: Key Vendors are 3M Cogent, Cognitec Systems, NEC and Safran Group 2Global Facial Recognition Market 2015-2019: Key Vendors are 3M Cogent, Cognitec Systems, NEC and Safran Group 3
... vital component of good health. Like plants that thrive in ... case for the production of vitamin D. In the past ... sun exposure. From fear of the potential dangers of UV ... work and recreational environments centered on virtual reality, we are ...
... 19 March 2009 World Water Day on Sunday, ... increasing scarcity of clean drinking water on our planet. ... causing more damage than ever before. Helmholtz scientists ... on solutions to precisely these problems. In cooperation with ...
... for Science Writings at Stevens Institute of Technology will host ... a talk by Bernd Heinrich, on Wednesday, April 1, 2009. ... 122, from 4 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. The journalist ... naturalist writer; he,s a great writer, period." A professor emeritus ...
Cached Biology News:The sunlight solution for better health 2The sunlight solution for better health 3Research to secure a safe water supply 2Research to secure a safe water supply 3Research to secure a safe water supply 4
The filter 695RDF55 Reflect 635 for the Molecular Imager FX is a band pass filter for Cy5 and Alexa Fluor 635 dyes....
... Kit is a 2-color staining method for ... to detect apoptotic cells by flow cytometry. ... required for measuring apoptosis in cells, including ... reagent performance; washing, reaction and rinsing buffers ...
The sample holders for gels are used to hold gels in place in the multi-sample tray I, which is used with Molecular Imager FX imaging systems....
... The ApopTag Fluorescein In Situ ... in situ by the indirect TUNEL ... is conjugated to a Fluorescein reporter ... for 40 samples. Results are analyzed ...
Biology Products: