While the domestic cat averages about four laps per second, with each lap bringing in about 0.1 milliliters of liquid, the big cats, such as tigers, know to slow down. They naturally lap more slowly to maintain the balance of gravity and inertia.
Analyzing the mechanics
In this research, Roman Stocker of MIT's Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEE), Pedro Reis of CEE and the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sunghwan Jung of Virginia Tech's Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, and Jeffrey Aristoff of Princeton's Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering used observational data gathered from high-speed digital videos of domestic cats, including Stocker's family cat, and a range of big cats (tiger, lion and jaguar) from the Boston-area zoos, thanks to a collaboration with Zoo New England's mammal curator John Piazza and assistant curator Pearl Yusuf. And, in what could be a first for a paper published in Science, the researchers also gathered additional data by analyzing existing YouTube.com videos of big cats lapping.
With these videos slowed way down, the researchers established the speed of the tongue's movement and the frequency of lapping. Knowing the size and speed of the tongue, the researchers then developed a mathematical model involving the Froude number, a dimensionless number that characterizes the ratio between gravity and inertia. For cats of all sizes, that number is almost exactly one, indicating a perfect balance.
To better understand the subtle dynamics of lapping, they also created a robotic version of a cat's tongue that moves up and down over a dish of water, enabling the researchers to systematically explore different aspects of lapping, and ultimately, to identify the mechanism under
|Contact: Denise Brehm|
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering