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Animal Biotechnology - Technologies, Markets and Companies

NEW YORK, Nov. 30, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Animal Biotechnology - Technologies, Markets and Companies


This report describes and evaluates animal biotechnology and its application in veterinary medicine and pharmaceuticals as well as improvement in food production. Knowledge of animal genetics is important in the application of biotechnology to manage genetic disorders and improve animal breeding. Genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics are also being applied to animal biotechnology.

Transgenic technologies are used for improving milk production and the meat in farm animals as well as for creating models of human diseases. Transgenic animals are used for the production of proteins for human medical use. Biotechnology is applied to facilitate xenotransplantation from animals to humans. Genetic engineering is done in farm animals and nuclear transfer technology has become an important and preferred method for cloning animals.There is discussion of in vitro meat production by culture

Biotechnology has potential applications in the management of several animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, avian flu and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The most important biotechnology-based products consist of vaccines, particularly genetically engineered or DNA vaccines. Gene therapy for diseases of pet animals is a fast developing area because many of the technologies used in clinical trials humans were developed in animals and many of the diseases of cats and dogs are similar to those in humans.RNA interference technology is now being applied for research in veterinary medicine

Molecular diagnosis is assuming an important place in veterinary practice. Polymerase chain reaction and its modifications are considered to be important. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays are also widely used. Newer biochip-based technologies and biosensors are also finding their way in veterinary diagnostics.

Biotechnology products are approved by the Center for Veterinary Medicine of the FDA. Regulatory issues relevant to animal biotechnology are described.

Approximately 104 companies have been identified to be involved in animal biotechnology and are profiled in the report. These are a mix of animal healthcare companies and biotechnology companies. Top companies in this area are identified and ranked. Information is given about the research activities of 11 veterinary and livestock research institutes. Important 107 collaborations in this area are shown.

Share of biotechnology-based products and services in 2010 is analyzed and the market is projected to 2020.

The text is supplemented with 34 tables and 5 figures.Selected 250 references from the literature are appended.


0. Executive Summary 13

1. Introduction to Animal Biotechnology 15

Introduction 15

Historical evolution of animal biotechnology 15

Basics of biotechnology 16

DNA 16

RNA 16

Genes 17

Single nucleotide polymorphisms 17

Copy number variations in the genome 17

DNA sequences 18

Gene expression 18

Gene regulation 19

Proteins 19

Functions of proteins 19

Recombinant proteins 20

Monoclonal antibodies 21

Animal genetics 21

Molecular genetics 21

Twinning in cattle 22

Pig genetics 22

Genetic studies in dogs 22

Animal genomics 22

The mouse genome 22

The dog genome 23

Sequencing of the dog genome 23

Comparison of genomes of healthy and diseased dogs 25

Analysis of DNA copy number variation 25

The cat genome 26

Marsupial genomes 26

Genomes of non-human primates 26

Chimpanzee genome 26

Genome of the rhesus macaque 27

Livestock genomics 27

Bovine genome 28

Bovine SNP map 29

Pig genome 29

Horse genome 31

Sheep genome 31

Chicken genome 32

Turkey genome 32

Salmon genome 33

Priority genome list of the National Human Genome Research Institute 34

Animal proteomics 34

Applications of proteomics in animals 35

Caseins in goat milk 35

Lactic acid bacteria 35

Applications of proteomics in animal healthcare 36

Antigenomics 36

Bioinformatics 36

Nanobiotechnology and animal health 37

Biomarkers and animal health 38

Recombinant protein manufacture 38

Animal biotechnology in relation to other technologies 38

2. Application of Biotechnology in Animals 41

Introduction 41

Applications of animal genomics 41

Genomics of disease resistance 41

Statistical genomics to improve breeding 42

Chicken breeding based on genomics 42

Bovine ankyrin 1 gene and beef tenderness 42

SNPs and longevity in dairy cattle 43

Share genomic data to improve cattle breeding programs 43

Genetic engineering 43

Livestock improvement by genetic engineering 43

Disease control by genetic engineering 44

Limitations and precautions for genetic engineering 44

Transgenic animal technology 44

Cloning animals 45

Nuclear transfer technology 46

Nuclear bisection for cloning 47

Zona-free cloning method 47

Abnormalities in cloned animals 48

Cloning from embyonic cells 49

Cloning of rabbits 49

Cloning the rat 50

Cloning the horse 50

Cloning the cow 50

Cloning the dog 51

Cloning in primates 51

Retrovector-mediated production of transgenic animals 51

Episomal vector-mediated gene delivery 52

Sperm-mediated gene transfer 52

Lentiviral transduction of male germ-line stem cells 53

Lentiviral transgenesis 54

Transgenic pharmaceuticals 54

Proteins from the milk of transgenic animals 54

Advantages of milk as source of transgenic proteins 55

Therapeutic proteins from rabbit milk 56

Recombinant human antibodies from cows 57

Therapeutic proteins from goat milk 57

Chicken transgenesis for the production of biopharmaceuticals 58

Concluding remarks about production of recombinant proteins in animals 58

Companies involved in production of transgenic pharmaceuticals 58

Transgenic food products 59

Milking genetically modified cows 59

Transgenic fish 59

Cloned animals as sources of milk and meat 60

Animal feeds from transgenic plants 60

Transgenic modification of plants to increase nutritional value of animal feeds 61

Transgenic disease models 61

Technologies to create transgenic disease models 61

Gene manipulation techniques 61

Embryonic stem cells for gene targeting 62

Homologous recombination 62

Animal models of human diseases 63

Transgenic models for studying human drug metabolism and toxicity 63

The Human Genome Project and the role of transgenics 64

Genomic and proteomic analyses of transgenic animal models 64

Concern about health and welfare of transgenic animals 65

Safety of transgenic technology 65

Concluding remarks about use of transgenic animals 66

RNA interference technology 66

RNAi versus antisense 66

Applications of RNAi in animal biotechnology 66

Xenotransplantation 67

Pigs for xenotransplantation 67

Genetically engineered pigs for transplants 68

Risks of xenotransplantation 68

World Health Organization and xenotransplantation 69

Ethical aspects of animal biotechnology 69

3. A Biotechnology Perspective of Animals Diseases 71

Introduction 71

Infections in animals 71

Viral infections 72

Avian influenza 72

Animal surveillance of influenza 74

Animal biotechnology implications of H1N1 influenza 75

Animal corona viruses and human SARS 76

Avian coronavirus 76

Bluetongue virus 77

Canine parvovirus 77

Classical swine fever 77

Developing new treatments against FMD 77

Equine infectious anemia 78

Foot-and-mouth disease 79

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 80

Rabies 81

Rinderpest 81

Bacterial infections 82

Bovine tuberculosis 82

Mycoplasmal pneumonia 82

Protozoal infections 82

Coccidiosis 82

Neosporosis 83

Toxoplasmosis 83

Trypanosomiasis 83

Nematodes 84

Infections that cross the species barrier 84

Complications of bacterial infections and antibiotic use in animals 84

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) 85

Inter-species transfer of prions 85

Scrapie 85

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy 86

Epidemiology of BSE 86

Biomarkers in the urine of BSE infected cattle 87

Human health implications of BSE 88

Breeding animals protected against BSE 88

TSE research 88

Prion gene haplotyping 88

Pharmacological approaches to TSE research. 89

Molecular diagnostic approach to TSE research 89

RNAi for knockdown of the bovine prion gene 89

Chronic wasting disease 90

Chronic wasting disease in wildlife 90

Chronic wasting disease of the cattle in Sudan 91

Chronic wasting in dairy cows in the Netherlands 91

Genetic disorders in farm animals 92

Genetic predisposition to acquired diseases in animals 92

Diseases of pet animals 92

Canine anemia 92

Cardiovascular disease 93

Heart failure 93

Cardiac complications of canine babesiosis 93

Diabetes 94

Role of biotechnology in management of diabetes 94

Arthritis 94

Cancer in cats and dogs 95

Cancer clinical trials in dogs 95

Canine Comparative Oncology Genomics Consortium 96

Preventive veterinary medicine 96

Prevention of introduction of foreign animal diseases 97

Producing transgenic cattle resistant to BSE 97

Zoonotic diseases 97

Viruses that emerge in animals and spread to humans 98

Collaborative management of animal and human health 98

Vaccines for zoonotic viral diseases 98

4. Molecular Diagnostics in Animals 101

Introduction 101

Nucleic acid technologies 101

The polymerase chain reaction 101

Basic Principles of PCR 101

Target selection 102

Detection of amplified DNA 102

Real-time PCR systems 102

LightCycler PCR system 103

Molecular beacons 103

Applications of PCR in veterinary medicine 103

Fluorescent in situ hybridization 104

Immunodiagnostics 106

Enzyme-linked immunoassays 106

Bovine Gamma Interferon Test 106

Antigen diagnosis of trichinosis 107

Parachek™ for the diagnosis of Johne's disease 107

Antibodies for differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals 108

Biochip/microarray technology 108

Applications of microarrays in animal biotechnology 109

Cattlearray3800 for functional genomics 109

eSensor™ electrochemical biochip 110

FR 48 microfluidic biochip 110

Biosensors 110

Immunosensors 111

Biosensor for ovulation prediction in dairy cows 111

Flow cytometry for animal diagnostics 112

Molecular imaging in animals 112

Veterinary cytogenetics 113

Applications of molecular diagnostics in animals 114

Canine DNA testing 114

Diagnostic aids to selective breeding 114

Selection of desirable traits 114

Gene variations and fat content of beef 115

Using genetic markers for improved milk production in dairy cattle 116

Application of bovine genomics for improving milk yield 116

Recognition of hereditary syndromes 116

Genetic markers in animals 117

SNP genotyping in animals 117

SNP genotyping for selective breeding of chicken 117

Animal identity and parentage analysis 118

Animal species identification in food 118

Diagnosis of infections 119

Bacterial infections 119

Diagnosis of viral infections 119

Molecular diagnosis of avian influenza 121

Molecular diagnosis of swine influenza 122

Diagnosis of parasitic infections 122

Detection of natural or bioterror threats to livestock 123

Molecular diagnosis of prion diseases 123

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy 123

Testing for BSE in living animals 125

Prions in urine 125

Diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in wildlife 126

Developing new tests for prion diseases 126

Differentiation among various types of TSEs 126

Protein cyclic amplification 126

Antibody tests for prion diseases 127

Scrapie genotyping 127

A real-time ultrasonic method for prion protein detection 128

Companies involved in developing molecular diagnostics for TSEs 128

Diagnosis of genetic disorders 129

Genetic screening of companion animals 129

Genes associated with exercise-induced collapse 129

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis 129

Diagnosis of cancer in animals 130

Diagnosis of skin cancer 130

Diagnosis of food-borne pathogens 130

Introduction 130

Molecular diagnostic methods used in food-borne infections 131

Limitations of use of molecular probes in food analysis 132

Companies with technologies for food pathogen detection 132

Biotechnology-based novel diagnostics for aquatic animals 133

Detection of chemicals in foods of animal origin 133

Companies developing molecular diagnostics for animals 134

5. Biotechnology-based Veterinary Medicine 137

Introduction 137

Biotechnology versus pharmaceutical products 137

Role of biotechnology in drug discovery and development 138

Cost of veterinary vs. human drug discovery and development 138

Advantages and disadvantages of testing biotech products in animal models 139

Biotechnolgoy-based antiparasitic drugs 139

Non-antibiotic strategies for control of infections in animals 139

Probiotics 140

Potential role for probiotics in the human gut 140

Potential role for probiotics in animals 140

Probiotic bacteria for control of pathogens in cattle 140

Nonantibiotic drugs for infections in animals 141

Immunomodulation as an alternative to antibiotics in infections 142

Cathelicidins: effector molecules of mammalian innate immunity 142

Bacteriophage therapy for antibiotic resistance 142

Biotechnology for treating tendon injuries 143

Use of growth factors to facilitate tendon injuries 143

Productivity enhancers 143

Bovine somatotropin for increasing milk production in dairy cows 144

Increasing milk production in cows by feeding propionibacteria 145

Use of growth factors 145

Transgenic plant products for use in animals 145

Biotechnology-based vaccines 146

Modern vaccines without viral non-structural proteins 146

Plant-derived vaccines for use in animals 147

Nano-bead vaccine adjuvant 148

Genetically engineered vaccines 148

Application of nucleic acid vaccines in veterinary medicine 148

DNA vaccines 148

DNA vaccine for tuberculosis 150

DNA vaccines for West Nile encephalitis 151

Gene-based vaccine for Marek's disease 151

Genetic engineering of live rabies vaccines 152

Genetically engineered vaccines for equine encephalitis 152

Genetically engineered vaccines for Johne's disease 153

Vaccines against avian influenza 153

Vaccines against parasitic infections 154

Recombinant marker vaccines 154

Marker vaccines for foot-and-mouth disease 155

Marker vaccine for Newcastle disease 155

Vaccines for classical swine fever 156

Vaccines for tick control 156

Vaccination to protection swine from H1N1 influenza virus infection 156

Vaccination of cattle to prevent E. coli transmission to consumers in meat 157

Vaccines for bacterial equine respiratory infections 157

Using RNAi to develop vaccines for viral infections in prawns 158

Companies developing biotechnology-based vaccines 158

Biotechnology in treatment of parasitic infections 158

Biotechnology in the treatment of CNS injuries in pet animals 159

Paraplegia due to acute spinal cord injury in dogs 159

RNAi for suppression prions in livestock 160

Cell Therapy 160

Umbilical cord blood stem cells 160

Application of stem cells in veterinary medicine 160

Use of stem cells to repair tendon injuries in horses 161

Stem cells for spinal cord injury in dogs 161

Gene therapy 162

Gene therapy vectors 162

Gene therapy by mitochondrial transfer 162

In utero gene therapy 163

Applications of gene therapy in veterinary medicine 163

Gene therapy for mucopolysaccharidosis VII in dogs 163

Gene therapy to increase disease resistance 164

Gene therapy for infections 164

Gene therapy for hematological disorders 165

Gene therapy for cardiomyopathy in dogs 165

Gene therapy for endocrine disorders 166

Gene therapy for arthritis 166

Gene therapy for renal failure 166

Cancer gene therapy 166

Antiangiogeneic cancer gene therapy in dogs 167

Brain tumors in cats and dogs 167

Breast cancer in dogs 168

Canine hemangiosarcoma 169

Canine melanoma 169

Canine soft tissue sarcoma 170

Melanoma in horses 170

6. Research in Animal Biotechnology 171

Introduction 171

Research institutes 171

Animal and Natural Resources Institute (USDA) 171

Center for Animal Biotechnology at University of Melbourne (Australia) 172

CSIRO Livestock Industries 173

Easter Bush Research Consortium 174

Danish Veterinary Institute 174

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute 175

Indian Veterinary Research Institute 175

Institute for Animal Health of UK 176

Kimron Veterinary Institute 176

Korean National Livestock Research Institute 177

National Agricultural & Veterinary Biotechnology Center of Ireland 177

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology 178

Veterinary Laboratories Agency of UK 178

Veterinary Medical University of Vienna 179

Ethical issues of research in animal biotechnology 179

Future prospects 180

Strategies for control of twining in cattle 180

Future developments of molecular diagnostics 180

Future of vaccine application in veterinary medicine 181

Promotion of innate immunity in animals 181

Identification of key parasite antigens for eliciting immune response 181

Virus-like particle vaccines for lasting immune response 182

Control of respiratory virus infections 182

Control and prevention of bioterrorism diseases in animals 182

Genetic control of disease resistance 183

Production of cattle lacking prion protein 183

Application of genetics and biotechnology to wildlife management 183

Future of animal genomics 184

Future prospects of in vitro meat production 184

7. Animal Biotechnology Markets 187

Introduction 187

Markets for biotechnology-based products for animal healthcare 188

Markets for biopharmaceuticals for animals 189

Markets for recombinant proteins for animal healthcare 189

Markets for vaccines for animals 190

Markets for animal diagnostics 190

Test for bovine spongiform encephalopathy 190

Animal biotechnology markets according to therapeutic areas 191

Markets for biotechnology-based animal products for humans 191

Transgenic proteins 192

Market for xenotransplantation 192

Strategies for promoting use of animal biotechnology 193

Financial losses from death and disease in animals 193

Losses in farm animals 193

Losses in poultry 193

Losses in equine industry 193

The emerging role of pet owners 193

Improvement in cattle through application of biotechnology 194

Economic aspects of genomic evaluation of dairy cattle 194

Pig market 194

Cattle Market 195

Poultry market 195

Milk from genetically modified cows 195

Transgenic fish 196

Role of biotechnology in livestock performace enhancer market 196

Gene transfer technologies 196

In vitro meat production and animal biotechnology markets 196

Cost-benefit aspects of transgenic proteins 196

Lower costs of transgenic production 196

Lower costs of treatment 197

Unmet needs in animal biotechnology 197

Future opportunities for biotechnology in animal healthcare 198

Farm animals 198

Global trends in epidemiology of livestock diseases 199

Companion animals 199

Animal molecular diagnostic markets 199

8. Regulatory issues 201

Introduction 201

Regulatory agencies for veterinary biotechnology in the US 201

FDA regulatory issues in agricultural biotechnology 202

FDA guidlines on use of antibiotics in food-producing animals 203

Food safety evaluation of transgenic animals 204

Food from cloned animals 205

FDA investigation of drug transfer into eggs 206

Animal feed safety 207

Medicated feeds 207

Regulatory issues for production of transgenic proteins 208

Risks of animal biotechnology 208

FDA regulation of bovine products 209

Worldwide biotechnology regulatory and trade issues 209

9. Companies Involved in Animal Biotechnology 211

Introduction 211

Biotechnology at top veterinary pharmaceutical companies 211

Profiles of selected companies 211

Collaborations 329

10. References 333

List of Tables

Table 1 1: Landmarks in the evolution of animal biotechnology in the 20th century 15

Table 1 2: Expression systems for production of recombinant proteins 20

Table 1 3: Applications of proteomics in livestock industry and veterinary medicine 35

Table 1 4: Selected animal genomics and proteomics databases (DB) 37

Table 2 1: Applications of genomics in livestock industry and veterinary medicine 41

Table 2 2: Recombinant proteins obtained from milk of transgenic animals 56

Table 2 3: Companies involved in the production of transgenic pharmaceuticals 59

Table 2 4: A comparison of gene knockout and transgenic techniques 62

Table 2 5: Examples of transgenic mouse models of non-neoplastic human diseases 63

Table 3 1: Diseases of dairy cattle 71

Table 3 2: Causes of chronic wasting disease in animals 90

Table 4 1: Potential applications of microarrays in animal biotechnology 109

Table 4 2: Biosensor technologies with potential applications in molecular diagnostics 111

Table 4 3: Applications of molecular diagnostics in animals 114

Table 4 4: Viruses that can be detected by molecular diagnostics 119

Table 4 5: Testing for harmful prions in brain tissue from dead cattle 124

Table 4 6: Companies involved in developing molecular diagnostics for TSEs 128

Table 4 7: Pathogenic bacteria in food and targets for molecular diagnostic probes 131

Table 4 8: Companies involved in molecular diagnostics for food-borne infections 132

Table 4 9: Companies developing molecular diagnostics for veterinary medicine 134

Table 5 1: Veterinary biotechnology products 137

Table 5 2: Pharmaceutical versus biotechnology products 138

Table 5 3: Nonantibiotic strategies for control of infections 139

Table 5 4: Experimental DNA vaccines tested in animals 149

Table 5 5: Companies developing biotechnology-based vaccines for animals 158

Table 6 1: Areas for future research applications of animal biotechnologies 180

Table 7 1: Worldwide markets for biotechnology-based products for farm animals: 2010-2020 188

Table 7 2: Worldwide markets for biotechnology-based products for pet animals: 2010-2020 188

Table 7 3: Biotechnology-based markets for animal healthcare according to regions: 2010-2020. 189

Table 7 4: Biotechnology markets for farm animals according to therapeutic areas: 2010-2020 191

Table 7 5: Biotechnology markets for pet animals in therapeutic areas: 2010-2020 191

Table 7 6: Worldwide markets for biotechnology-based animal products for humans: 2010-2020 192

Table 9 1: Ranking of top 7 veterinary companies with biotechnology products 211

Table 9 2: Selected collaborations of companies in animal biotechnology 329

List of Figures

Figure 1 1: Relation of animal biotechnology to other technologies and human health 39

Figure 2 1: Nuclear transfer technology 46

Figure 2 2: Generation of transgenic animals by linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer 53

Figure 2 3: Production of therapeutic proteins in the milk of transgenic animals. 55

Figure 7 1: Unmet needs in animal biotechnology 198

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Biotechnology Industry: Animal Biotechnology - Technologies, Markets and Companies

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Nicolas Bombourg
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