A team of scientists from A*STAR's Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IMCB) has discovered the secret recipe for 'antidotes' that could neutralize the deadly plant toxin Ricin, widely feared for its bioterrorism potential, as well as the Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) responsible for the tens of thousands of hospital-acquired infections in immune-compromised patients all over the world. The results of this first ever genome-wide study to understand how the Ricin and PE toxins attack cells may also be useful for designing more effective antidotes against Diphtheria and Shiga-like toxins secreted by infectious strains of E. coli bacteria, such as those responsible for the recent food poisoning outbreak in Germany.
In this study, the team led by IMCB Principal Investigator, Dr Frdric Bard examined the entire human genome of about 22,000 genes to identify those genes of normal host cell processes which Ricin and PE toxins hijack in order to kill the cell. Of the several host genes identified, the team discovered one called ERGIC2 to be an attractive therapeutic target because it is not only highly essential for Ricin but also required for PE intoxication. "This means that we could potentially develop a generic antidote that is effective against the two different types of toxins by blocking ERGIC2 function," said Dr Bard.
Ricin is an extremely potent poison that can easily be purified from the widely available castor beans. Security experts say an amount roughly equivalent to half a grain of rice is enough to kill an adult, making it 1,000 times more poisonous than cyanide. There are currently no known antidotes for Ricin, and the ease of production of this tasteless, odorless plant toxin is why ricin is feared for its immense bioterrorism potential.
Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are a major healthcare problem affecting millions of people around the world. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that HAIs le
|Contact: Dr. Sarah Chang KC|
Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore