Navigation Links
UC Santa Barbara scientists learn how to unlock the destiny of a cell: A gift for the tin man?
Date:11/1/2012

(Santa Barbara, Calif.) Scientists have discovered that breaking a biological signaling system in an embryo allows them to change the destiny of a cell. The findings could lead to new ways of making replacement organs.

The discovery was made in the laboratory of Joel H. Rothman, a professor in the Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology at UC Santa Barbara. The studies were reported in the interdisciplinary journal Genes and Development, and were carried out by Ph.D student Nareg Djabrayan, in collaboration with Rothman and two other members of the laboratory, Ph.D student Erica Sommermann and postdoctoral fellow Nathaniel Dudley.

"At some point along the way toward becoming part of a complete individual, cells become destined to choose a particular identity and long-term profession," Rothman noted. "Once a cell chooses who it will be, it locks onto that identity for the remainder of its life."

A cell that is destined to become a heart cell functions exclusively in the heart until it dies, and never chooses later to change jobs by becoming, for example, a brain cell. "If Oz's wizard possessed the powers he claimed, and had a spare brain lying around, he could switch it to a heart as a gift for the Tin Man. And he could reverse the trick for the Scarecrow," Rothman said.

Similarly, the researchers have found a way to unlock cells' destinies and lead them to take on a new profession.

The scientists found that a widely used cell signaling system, known as "Notch" signaling, causes cells to commit to a particular occupation, such as a skin or brain cell. When they blocked the signal by genetic manipulation, the researchers discovered that they could force a cell to change its destiny, such that they instead became cells of the intestine.

"We found that we could break the signal in such a way that cells would follow their usual destinies, but were somehow less committed to doing so: We could convince them to change professions long after they would normally refuse to do so," Rothman said.

The scientists made the discovery by harnessing the genetics of a tiny nematode worm known as C. elegans, a model animal that has become famed in fundamental studies in biomedicine, and has been the subject of six Nobel prizes.

The researchers discovered that shutting off the Notch signal in early embryos made it possible for them to change the destiny of cells much later on, at a stage when they normally could not. "The later cells seemed to remember what had happened to their great-grandparent cells," Rothman said. "Imagine if the experience of your great-grandparents predestined you to become a lawyer, dentist, or coal miner, and you could not choose to change your professional destiny. That is what is happening to cells whose cellular ancestors received the Notch signal."

The research was supported by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the California Institute of Regenerative Medicine.

The discovery could someday help scientists develop new ways to produce tissues and organs in the laboratory that could be used to replace a patient's injured, diseased, or aged organs. By unlocking a cell's normal destiny, it may be possible to change it into an altogether different type of cell that could be used to grow a new organ for a patient or perhaps, a Tin Man.


'/>"/>

Contact: George Foulsham
george.foulsham@ia.ucsb.edu
805-893-3071
University of California - Santa Barbara
Source:Eurekalert  

Related biology technology :

1. inVentiv Health Selected to Provide Sales Operations Support for Santarus
2. Oracle chairman Jeff Henley makes $50 million gift to UC Santa Barbara
3. Kitware Announces Opening of Santa Fe Office
4. Scientists defuse the Vietnam time bomb
5. Singapore scientists lead human embryonic stem cell study
6. Sheffield scientists shine a light on the detection of bacterial infection
7. Nanowiggles: Scientists discover graphene nanomaterials with tunable functionality in electronics
8. Scientists solve mystery of colorful armchair nanotubes
9. iBioSeminars and iBioMagazine: Free, Online Biology Seminars and Short Talks by Leading Scientists
10. Chinese Scientists Zhen-Yi Wang and Zhu Chen Awarded 7th Annual Szent-Gyorgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research
11. Scientists decode brain waves to eavesdrop on what we hear
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
 UC Santa Barbara scientists learn how to unlock the destiny of a cell: A gift for the tin man?
(Date:6/27/2016)... , June 27, 2016  Global demand ... 4.6 percent through 2020 to $7.2 billion.  This ... and beverages, cleaning products, biofuel production, animal feed, ... biotechnology, diagnostics, and biocatalysts). Food and beverages will ... driven by increasing consumption of products containing enzymes ...
(Date:6/27/2016)... ... 2016 , ... Newly created 4Sight Medical Solutions ... healthcare market. The company's primary focus is on new product introductions, to include ... are necessary to help companies efficiently bring their products to market. , The ...
(Date:6/24/2016)... DIEGO , June 24, 2016 ... more sensitively detects cancers susceptible to PARP inhibitors ... circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The new test has ... HRD-targeted therapeutics in multiple cancer types. ... targeting DNA damage response pathways, including PARP, ATM, ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... Mass. , June 23, 2016   ... development of novel compounds designed to target cancer ... napabucasin, has been granted Orphan Drug Designation from ... the treatment of gastric cancer, including gastroesophageal junction ... stemness inhibitor designed to inhibit cancer stemness pathways ...
Breaking Biology Technology:
(Date:5/24/2016)... facilitates superior patient care by providing unparalleled technology to leaders of the medical imaging ... product recently added to the range of products distributed by Ampronix. Photo ... ... ... News ...
(Date:5/16/2016)... 16, 2016   EyeLock LLC , a market ... opening of an IoT Center of Excellence in ... the development of embedded iris biometric applications. ... convenience and security with unmatched biometric accuracy, making it ... from DNA. EyeLock,s platform uses video technology to deliver ...
(Date:5/9/2016)... , UAE, May 9, 2016 ... it comes to expanding freedom for high net worth ... Even in today,s globally connected world, there is still ... system could ever duplicate sealing your deal with a ... second passports by taking advantage of citizenship via investment ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):