Navigation Links
Viral protein influences key cell-signaling pathway

New research shows that a protein produced by a cancer-causing virus influences a key signaling pathway in the immune cells that the virus infects. This stimulates the cells to divide, helping the virus spread through the body.

The study, led by researchers at Ohio State University, examined the human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and a protein that it produces called p12.

The research is published in the April issue of the journal AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses.

The study found that p12 increases the activity of an important gene in host cells. That gene controls production of a cell protein called p300. The p300 protein, in turn, controls a variety of other genes in many types of cells, including T lymphocytes, the cells that HTLV-1 infects.

The findings might help scientists better understand how HTLV-1 maintains its lifelong infection and how the normal immune cells that "remember" a vaccination or an infection can survive for years or even decades.

"The p300 protein is an important central regulator of gene activity in lymphocytes and many other kinds of cells," says Michael Lairmore, professor and chair of veterinary biosciences and a member of the OSU Comprehensive Cancer Center ?Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute. "We were surprised to see p300 show-up among the many genes affected by this viral protein."

HTLV-1 infects an estimated 15 to 20 million people worldwide. In about five percent of them, the infection will lead to adult T cell leukemia or lymphoma (ATLL). ATLL is an aggressive disease characterized by a long latent period and the proliferation of T lymphocytes. The virus is spread by sexual activity, by contact with infected blood and by infected women to children through breast milk.

HTLV-1, like its cousin HIV, inserts its genetic information permanently into the DNA of a T lymphocyte and remains there for the life of the cell. HTLV-1 infecti on is also lifelong. A hallmark of HTLV-1 infection is the proliferation of T lymphocytes.

This sets HTLV-1 apart from HIV, Lairmore says. "Unlike HIV, which kills cells and destroys the immune system, HTLV-1 enhances the survival of T cells."

But scientists don't understand how it prolongs T-cell survival and causes their proliferation.

This study's findings offer some clues. It is the latest in a series of studies led by Lairmore that examine how HTLV-1 affects T lymphocytes and causes cancer.

The p12 gene is called an "accessory gene" because the protein encoded by the gene seemed unnecessary since the virus could still reproduce, or replicate, in cells grown in the laboratory even when p12 was missing.

"But viruses do not keep genes unless they have a purpose," Lairmore says. In an earlier study, Lairmore and his colleagues tried to infect an animal model with an HTLV-1 that lacked the p12 gene, and it stopped the virus from replicating almost entirely.

"That told us this gene was important," he says.

Subsequent research led by Lairmore showed that the p12 protein travels to the network of membranes within the cell known as the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). Among other things, the RER helps regulate the amount of calcium in the cell. The investigators found that the p12 protein allows calcium to leak out of the RER, thereby causing calcium levels to rise elsewhere in the cell.

"Calcium is exquisitely regulated in cells," Lairmore says. "When p12 affects that balance, it affects the activity of a variety of genes."

The current study used a non-infectious form of HIV to transplant the HTLV-1 p12 gene into laboratory-grown T cells. The infected cells then produced a constant level of p12 protein. The researchers then used gene microarray technology to identify which cellular genes out of 33,000 become either more or less active due to the p12 protein.

The researchers found that p12 altered the activity of a variety of genes linked to chemical pathways that control cell signaling, proliferation and death. The p300 gene stood out as one showing increased activity. Taken overall, the findings suggest that HTLV-1 p12 protein influences the genetic activity of infected T cells to stimulate their proliferation and promote efficient viral infection.


'"/>

Source:Ohio State University


Related biology news :

1. Viral DNA sequence a possible trigger for breast cancer
2. NYU Study Reveals How Brains Immune System Fights Viral Encephalitis
3. Viral protein helps infected T cells stick to uninfected cells
4. Viral fitness explains different resistance patterns to aids drugs
5. Viral genetic differences are possible key to HIV dementia
6. Viral hitchhiker inhibits Wolbachia bacterias ability to proliferate
7. Viral marker of human migration suspect
8. Viral protein is an effective preventative against infection
9. New, automated tool successfully classifies and relates proteins in unprecedented way
10. New binding target for oncogenic viral protein
11. Controversial drug shown to act on brain protein to cut alcohol use
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:11/15/2016)... Md. , Nov. 15, 2016  Synthetic ... company developing therapeutics focused on the gut microbiome, ... offering of 25,000,000 shares of its common stock ... common stock at a price to the public ... proceeds to Synthetic Biologics from the offering, excluding ...
(Date:11/14/2016)... SARASOTA, Fla., Nov. 14, 2016  xG Technology, Inc. ... in providing critical wireless communications for use in challenging ... ended September 30, 2016. Management will hold a conference ... at 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time (details below). ... announced a $16 million binding agreement to acquire Vislink ...
(Date:6/27/2016)... -- Research and Markets has announced the addition of ... their offering. The report forecasts ... grow at a CAGR of 12.28% during the period 2016-2020. ... market analysis with inputs from industry experts. The report covers the ... report also includes a discussion of the key vendors operating in ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:12/7/2016)... ... December 07, 2016 , ... A new study ... setting of previously treated, advanced pancreatic cancer, liquid biopsies are not yet an ... and timing of blood sampling may improve the value of a blood-based test.” ...
(Date:12/7/2016)... - OncoQuest Inc. ("OncoQuest"), a biopharmaceutical company focused ... for the treatment of cancer, today announced that ... Program with Cytovance Biologics ( Oklahoma City, ... product. Supported by recent positive interim clinical results ... cancer patients, OncoQuest has engaged Cytovance to establish ...
(Date:12/7/2016)... 7, 2016  Biocom, the association for the ... following passage of 21 st Century Cures legislation in ... by a 392-26 vote and in the Senate on December ... to Joe Panetta , president & CEO of Biocom: ... hope to millions of patients around the world. The measure ...
(Date:12/7/2016)... , Dec. 7, 2016  Genprex, Inc. ... revolutionary immunogene therapy treatments, today announced that it ... within a leading strategic communications and advisory firm, ... program. The program will combine investor relations, public ... of raising the profile of Genprex and its ...
Breaking Biology Technology: