Navigation Links
Viral protein helps infected T cells stick to uninfected cells

New research shows that a protein made by a cancer virus causes infected immune cells to cling to other immune cells, enabling the virus to spread.

The virus, the human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), is transmitted mainly when infected cells known as T lymphocytes, or T cells, touch uninfected T cells.

The finding helps explain how this cell-to-cell transmission happens. It suggests that an HTLV-1 protein known as p12 activates infected T cells and causes them to become sticky and adhere to other T cells.

The greater stickiness happens because the p12 viral protein causes special adherence proteins found on the surface of T cells to cluster in large groups ?something that normally happens when T cells touch to communicate with one another during an immune response.

The findings also suggest that a drug that inhibits the p12 protein might also help prevent HTLV-1 transmission.

The research, published in the May issue of the Journal of Immunology, was led by scientists with The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center and the OSU College of Veterinary Medicine.

"This study indicates that the p12 protein plays an important role in programming infected cells for cell-to-cell transmission," says principal investigator Michael D. Lairmore, professor and chair of veterinary biosciences and a member of the OSU Comprehensive Cancer Center.

"It shows that this virus takes advantage of something that T cells do normally, but, in this case, the virus is stimulating the interaction with other T cells rather than a normal immune response."

HTLV-1 infects an estimated 15 to 25 million people worldwide. About 5 percent of those infected develop adult T cell leukemia or lymphoma (ATLL), an aggressive disease characterized by a long latent period and the proliferation of T cells. The infected cells are spread from person to person during sexual activity and by blood and breast milk.

In the body, the HTLV-1 mainly targets immune-system cells known as CD4 T lymphocytes. These immune cells coordinate immune responses in part through physical contact with other immune cells. The cells adhere to one another using a protein known as LFA-1, which is found on the cells' surface.

In this study, Lairmore and his collaborators examined the influence of the p12 protein on LFA-1 adhesion. The researchers compared cells infected with HTLV-1 that lacked the p12 protein to cells that were infected by normal HTLV-1.

They found that the p12 protein not only activated the T cells, but caused the cells infected with normal HTLV-1 to have far greater adherence than cells infected with viruses that lacked p12 in a standardized adherence test.

In addition, they showed that the greater adherence did not occur because the infected cells made more of the LFA-1 protein, but rather because already existing LFA-1 protein molecules gathered into large clusters on the cell surface.

(LFA-1 proteins float in the cell membrane like buoys in semisolid gelatin. They can move across the surface of the cell and form clusters when directed to do so by signals from within the cell.)

"Our study is the first to show that HTLV-1 p12 not only enhances the activity of infected T cells, but that it promotes the spread of the virus from cell to cell by causing LFA-1 receptors to cluster on the cell surface," Lairmore says.


'"/>

Source:Ohio State University


Related biology news :

1. Viral DNA sequence a possible trigger for breast cancer
2. NYU Study Reveals How Brains Immune System Fights Viral Encephalitis
3. Viral protein influences key cell-signaling pathway
4. Viral fitness explains different resistance patterns to aids drugs
5. Viral genetic differences are possible key to HIV dementia
6. Viral hitchhiker inhibits Wolbachia bacterias ability to proliferate
7. Viral marker of human migration suspect
8. Viral protein is an effective preventative against infection
9. New, automated tool successfully classifies and relates proteins in unprecedented way
10. New binding target for oncogenic viral protein
11. Controversial drug shown to act on brain protein to cut alcohol use
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:


(Date:2/21/2017)... -- Der weltweite Biobanking-Sektor wird bis zum ... mit mehr als 50 Vertretern aus verschiedenen Branchen wurde aber ... diese Prognose zu realisieren. ... Zu den Schwierigkeiten für ... für die Biobank, die Implementierung Zeit sparender Technologien, ein ...
(Date:2/13/2017)... FRANCISCO , Feb. 13, 2017  RSA ... centralized platform that is designed to enhance fraud ... latest release in the RSA Fraud & Risk ... enable organizations to leverage additional insights from internal ... tools to better protect their customers from targeted ...
(Date:2/9/2017)... LONDON , Feb. 9, 2017 The ... in-depth analysis of the biomass boiler market globally in ... sales of biomass boilers. The market for biomass boilers ... product type, end-user, application, and country/region. The market based ... agriculture & forest residues, biogas & energy crops, urban ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:2/24/2017)... 24, 2017  Aethlon Medical, Inc. (Nasdaq: ... its Chairman and CEO, Jim Joyce . ... Conference last Saturday, Bill Gates warned world ... people than nuclear weapons. Mr. Gates expressed his concern, ... agencies, that scientific terrorists have access to the necessary ...
(Date:2/24/2017)... 2017 China Cord Blood Corporation (NYSE: ... provider of cord blood collection, laboratory testing, hematopoietic stem ... its unaudited financial results for the third quarter and ... 31, 2016. Third Quarter of Fiscal 2017 ... of fiscal 2017 increased by 18.6% to RMB200.9 million ...
(Date:2/24/2017)... Pa., Feb. 24, 2017  VWR Corporation (NASDAQ: VWR), the ... laboratory and production customers, today reported its financial results for ... Highlights: 4Q16 record quarterly ... 1.0% on an organic basis. ... an organic basis, while the Americas net sales increased 2.5%, ...
(Date:2/23/2017)... 23, 2017 ... per share data, unaudited)Three Months Ended December 31,Twelve Months ... $         ...   89026%Aldurazyme Net Product Revenue ... Net Product Revenue  756025%297303(2)%Vimizim Net ...
Breaking Biology Technology: