Previous research by Newton's lab, also published in Molecular Cell, described the discovery of an enzyme they named PH domain Leucine-rich repeat Protein Phosphatase (PHLPP, pronounced "flip") that turns off signaling of the Akt/protein kinase B, a protein which controls cell growth, proliferation and survival.
The new work describes a second family member, PHLPP2, which also inactivates Akt, inhibiting the cell cycle progression and promoting cell death. However, PHLPP1 and PHLPP2 control three different disease pathways. While both are important in cancer, PHLPP 1 impacts an important pathway in diabetes and PHLPP2 could be useful in fighting heart and neurological disease.
"We first discovered that PHLPP controls Akt, which is the driver on the pathway to tumor growth," said Newton. "PHLPP is like a brake that, when on, slows the driver but when 'off' allows the driver to move. In cancer, we want the driver to brake, to prevent cell proliferation leading to tumor growth. But in diabetes, heart or neurological disease, where we want to promote cell growth and survival, we don't want to slow the driver down."
The researchers have now found that PHLPP1 controls the driver along one pathway ?Akt2, which is more closely involved in maintaining a constant level of glucose in the bloodstream. Therapies directed at inhibiting PHLPP1 could be used to treat diabetes; in essence, removing the 'brake' and allowing Akt2 to be more functional and allow better insulin regul
Source:University of California - San Diego